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Burns skin care questions cheap 20 gm eurax with visa, “Pakistan Antiterror Support Avoids Vow of Military Aid acne holes order 20 gm eurax visa,” New York Times skin care products online order cheap eurax, 16 September 2001 acne 35 weeks pregnant buy generic eurax from india, sec. Samina Ahmed, “The United States and Terrorism in Southwest Asia: September 11 and Beyond,” International Security 26, no. Noam Chomsky 152 Hegemony or Survival 43 Mark Thomas, Column, New Statesman 15, no. Demands Iraq Show Cooperation by this Weekend,” New York Times, 10 February 2003, sec. Purdum, “Bush’s Moral Rectitude Is a Tough Sell in Old Europe,” New York Times, 30 January 2003, sec. Robert Kagan, “Politicians with Guts,” Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 10 February 2003; also in Washington Post, 31 January 2003, sec. Amberin Zaman, “Iraqi Kurds Balk at Turks’ Role,” Los Angeles Times, 8 February 2003, sec. Weisman, “Politics Shapes the Battlefield in Iraq,” New York Trimes, Sunday, 30 March 2003, sec. Canova, “Banking and Financial Reform at the Crossroads of the Neoliberal Contagion,” American University International Law Review 14, no. Banking and Finance: From Regulated Competition to Free-Market Receivership,” Brooklyn Law Review 60, no. Patterson, “Will Democrats Find Victory in the Ruins,” Boston Globe, 15 December 2000, sec. Also see his book the Vanishing Voter: Public Involvement in an Age of Uncertainty (New York: Alfred A. Jacobson, “A House and Senate Divided: the Clinton Legacy and the Congressional Elections of 2000,” Political Science Quarterly 116, no. See also my articles in the January (“Elections 2000”) and February (“Voting Patterns and Abstention”) 2001 issues of Z Magazine. See also Michael Dawson, the Consumer Trap: Big Business Marketing in American Life (Urbana, Ill. Alan Cowell, “Kurds Assert Few Outside Iraq Wanted Them to Win,” New York Times, 11 April 1991, sec. Powell, “Death as a Way of Life: Russia’s Demographic Decline,” Current History 101, no. For polls, see Michael Wines, “New Study Supports Idea Stalin Was Poisoned,” New York Times, 5 March 2003, sec. For the others, see Aaron David Miller, Search for Security: Saudi Arabian Oil and American Foreign Policy, 1939–1949 (Chapel Hill, N. Anderson, Aramco, the United States and Saudi Arabia: A Study of the Dynamics of Foreign Oil Policy, 1933–1950 (Princeton, N. Stoff, Oil, War and American Security: the Search for a National Policy on Foreign Oil, 1941–1947 (New Haven, Conn. Spiegel, the Other Arab-Israeli Conflict: Making America’s Middle East Policy from Truman to Reagan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), p. Harrison, “Gas and Geopolitics in Northeast Asia: Pipelines, Regional Stability, and the Korean Nuclear Crisis,” World Policy Journal 19, no. The 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty in Historical Perspective, Japan Policy Research Institute, working paper no. Aluf Benn, “Russia Concerned over Israel’s Nuclear Weapons Program,” Ha’aretz, 2 June 2003, reporting Russia’s demand that Israel’s nuclear program “be placed on the agenda of international organizations concerned with preventing nuclear proliferation. Kiernan, European Empires from Conquest to Collapse, 1815–1960 (Leicester, England: Leicester University Press, in association with Fontana Paperbacks, 1982). Noam Chomsky 157 Hegemony or Survival 10 National Intelligence Council, Global Trends 2015: A Dialogue about the Future with Nongovernment Experts (Washington, D. The specific topics reviewed here are discussed in much greater detail in my World Orders Old and New, op. Kahin, Subversion as Foreign Policy: the Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia (New York: New Press, 1995). On current Israeli strategies, see particularly Tanya Reinhart, Israel/Palestine: How to End the War of 1948 (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002), and Baruch Kimmerling, Politicide: Ariel Sharon’s Wars against the Palestinians (New York: Verso, 2003). Noam Chomsky 159 Hegemony or Survival 33 Cited in Christopher Adams, Guy Dinmore, and Harvey Morris, “Middle East ‘Road Map’ Launched,” Financial Times, 1 May 2003, sec. Eva Balslev and Katrin Sommer, “Case Study: Qalqilya,” News from Within (Jerusalem), October 2002. On Sharon’s 1992 plan, and others across the spectrum at the same time, see the analysis by Peace Now, reviewed in World Orders Old and New, op. Radin, “Powell’s Trip Is Called a Way to Buy Time for Sharon Sweep,” Boston Globe, 9 April 2002, sec. Tanks Used Plows to Kill Thousands in Gulf War Trenches,” Newsday, 12 September 1991, p. For more extensive quotes and discussion, see my Towards a New Cold War: Essays on the Current Crisis and How We Got There (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982; New Press, 2003), pp. This was the immediate background of Mill’s classic essay on humanitarian intervention. Moshe Dayan, internal government discussion, cited in Yossi Beilin, Mehiro shel Ihud (in Hebrew; Israel: Revivim, 1985), p. The conclusion will come as no surprise to those who have been reading the regular reports of its correspondents, notably Gideon Levy and Amira Hass. He notes that the revised definitions still make “no principled distinction between ‘terror’ as defined by the U. Rapoport, “The Fourth Wave: September 11 in the History of Terrorism,” Current History 100, no. On Clinton-backed Israeli invasions of Lebanon in the 1990s, beyond the illegally occupied southern region, see my Fateful Triangle,updated edition, op. Burns, “Ringleader of ’85 Achille Lauro Hijacking Says Killing Wasn’t His Fault,” New York Times, sec. Peshawar gathering: Barry Bearak, “Leaders of the Old Afghanistan Prepare for the New,” New York Times, 25 October 2001, sec. Burns, “Afghan Gathering in Pakistan Backs Future Role for King,” New York Times, 26 October 2001, sec. Lakshmanan, “1,000 Afghan Leaders Discuss a New Regime,” Boston Globe, 25 October 2001, sec. Franck, “Terrorism and the Rights of Self-Defense,” American Journal of International Law 95, no. Grant, “Terror: Measuring the Cost, Calculating the Response,” Current History 101, no. Kenneth Roth, executive director of Human Rights Watch, warned at once that the bombing had disrupted assistance to 2. On these and other assessments and related material, see my 9-11 (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2001), pp. Aldrich, “America Used Islamists to Arm the Bosnian Muslims,” Guardian (London), 22 April 2002, Leader, p. Bill and Rebecca Bill Chavez, “The Politics of Incoherence: the United States and the Middle East,” Middle East Journal 56, no. Byman, “The War on Terror Requires Subtler Weapons,” Financial Times, 27 May 2003, p. Jessica Stern, “How America Created a Terrorist Haven,” New York Times, 20 August 2003, sec. That these are their goals is also assumed by Washington planners; see Wolfowitz interview, Vanity Fair, op. Treaster, “Compound Was a Lure for Terror, Experts Say,” New York Times, 14 May 2003, sec. Uri Sagie, Lights within the Fog (in Hebrew; Tel Aviv: Yedioth Ahronoth-Chemed, 1998), pp. Noam Chomsky 166 Hegemony or Survival 54 For sources and background discussion, see my World Orders, Old and New, op. Ibrahim, “Democracy: We Must Be Careful What We Wish For,” Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 31 March 2003; and, “Democracy: Be Careful What You Wish For,” Washington Post, March 23, 2002, sec. On subsequent presidential directives, see Center for Defense Information, Defense Monitor 29, no. Sagan and Jeremi Suri, “The Madman Nuclear Alert: Secrecy, Signaling, and Safety in October 1969,” International Security 27, no. The most crucial events ignored were a serious Russia-China border conflict, which might have led to Russian misinterpretation of the “signal,” with grim consequences.
When more than one substance is judged to acne y clima frio polar buy eurax now play a significant role in the development of the sexual dysfunction skin care 50th and france buy eurax with a visa, each should be listed separately skin care lounge proven 20gm eurax. Diagnostic Features the major feature is a disturbance in sexual function that has a temporal relationship with substance/medication initiation acne while breastfeeding effective eurax 20 gm, dose increase, or substance/medication discontinuation. Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis Sexual dysfunctions can occur in association with intoxication with the following classes of substances: alcohol; opioids; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics; stimulants (including co caine); and other (or unknown) substances. Sexual dysfunctions can occur in association with withdrawal from the following classes of substances: alcohol; opioids; sedatives, hyp notics, or anxiolytics; and other (or unknown) substances. Medications that can induce sex ual dysfunctions include antidepressants, antipsychotics, and hormonal contraceptives. The most commonly reported side effect of antidepressant drugs is difficulty with or gasm or ejaculation. Certain agents, such as bupropion and mirtazapine, appear not to be associated with sexual side effects. The sexual problems associated with antipsychotic drugs, including problems with sexual desire, erection, lubrication, ejaculation, or orgasm, have occurred with typical as well as atypical agents. However, problems are less common with prolactin-sparing anti psychotics than with agents that cause significant prolactin elevation. Although the effects of mood stabilizers on sexual function are unclear, it is possible that lithium and anticonvulsants, with the possible exception of lamotrigine, have adverse effects on sexual desire. Similarly, there may be a higher prevalence of erectile and orgasmic problems associated with benzodiaz epines. Many nonpsychiatric medications, such as cardiovascular, cytotoxic, gastrointestinal, and hormonal agents, are associated with disturbances in sexual function. Illicit substance use is associated with decreased sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, and difficulty reach ing orgasm. Sexual dysfunctions are also seen in individuals receiving methadone but are seldom reported by patients receiving buprenofihine. Chronic alcohol abuse and chronic nicotine abuse are associated with erectile problems. Prevalence the prevalence and the incidence of substance/medication-induced sexual dysfunction are unclear, likely because of underreporting of treatment-emergent sexual side effects. Data on substance/medication-induced sexual dysfunction typically concern the effects of antidepressant drugs. The prevalence of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction var ies in part depending on the specific agent. Approximately 25%-80% of individuals taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonergic antidepressants, and combined serotonergic-adrenergic antidepressants report sexual side effects. There are differences in the incidence of sexual side effects between some serotonergic and com bined adrenergic-serotonergic antidepressants, although it is unclear if these differences are clinically significant. Approximately 50% of individuals taking antipsychotic medications will experience adverse sexual side effects, including problems with sexual desire, erection, lubrication, ejaculation, or orgasm. The incidence of these side effects among different antipsychotic agents is unclear. Exact prevalence and incidence of sexual dysfunctions among users of nonpsychiatric medications such as cardiovascular, cytotoxic, gastrointestinal, and hormonal agents are unknown. Elevated rates of sexual dysfunction have been reported with methadone or high-dose opioid drugs for pain. There are increased rates of decreased sexual desire, erec tile dysfunction, and difficulty reaching orgasm associated with illicit substance use. The prevalence of sexual problems appears related to chronic drug abuse and appears higher in individuals who abuse heroin (approximately 60%-70%) than in individuals who abuse amphetamines or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Elevated rates of sexual dysfunction are also seen in individuals receiving methadone but are sel dom reported by patients receiving buprenorphine. Chronic alcohol abuse and chronic nicotine abuse are related to higher rates of erectile problems. Development and Course the onset of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction may be as early as 8 days after the agent is first taken. Approximately 30% of individuals with mild to moderate orgasm de lay will experience spontaneous remission of the dysfunction within 6 months. In some cases, serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction may persist after the agent is discontinued. The time to onset of sexual dysfunction after initiation of antipsy chotic drugs or drugs of abuse is unknown. It is probable that the adverse effects of nico tine and alcohol may not appear until after years of use. There is some evidence that disturbances in sexual function related to substance/medication use increase with age. Culture-R elated Diagnostic Issues There may be an interaction among cultural factors, the influence of medications on sexual functioning, and the response of the individual to those changes. Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues Some gender differences in sexual side effects may exist. Functional Consequences of Substance/M edication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction Medication-induced sexual dysfunction may result in medication noncompliance. Many mental conditions, such as depressive, bipolar, anxiety, and psychotic disorders, are associated with disturbances of sexual function. Thus, differentiating a substance/medication-induced sexual dys function from a manifestation of the underlying mental disorder can be quite difficult. The diagnosis is usually established if a close relationship between substance/medication ini tiation or discontinuation is observed. A clear diagnosis can be established if the problem occurs after substance/medication initiation, dissipates with substance/medication dis continuation, and recurs with introduction of the same agent. Most substance/medication-in duced side effects occur shortly after initiation or discontinuation. Sexual side effects that only occur after chronic use of a substance/medication may be extremely difficult to di agnose with certainty. The other specified sexual dysfunction category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses to communicate the specific reason that the presentation does not meet the cri teria for any specific sexual dysfunction. This is done by recording “other specified sexual dysfunction”followed by the specific reason. The unspecified sexual dysfunction category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses not to specify the reason that the criteria are not met for a specific sexual dys function, and includes presentations for which there is insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis. The area of sex and gender is highly controversial and has led to a proliferation of terms whose meanings vary over time and within and between disciplines. An additional source of confusion is that in English "sex" connotes both male/female and sexuality. This chapter employs constructs and terms as they are widely used by clinicians from various disci plines with specialization in this area. In this chapter, sex and sexual refer to the biological indicators of male and female (understood in the context of reproductive capacity), such as in sex chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, and nonambiguous internal and external genitalia. Disorders of sex development denote conditions of inborn somatic deviations of the reproductive tract from the norm and/or discrepancies among the biological indica tors of male and female. Cross-sex hormone treatment denotes the use of feminizing hor mones in an individual assigned male at birth based on traditional biological indicators or the use of masculinizing hormones in an individual assigned female at birth. The need to introduce the term gender arose with the realization that for individuals with conflicting or ambiguous biological indicators of sex. Thus, gender is used to denote the public (and usually legally recognized) lived role as boy or girl, man or woman, but, in contrast to certain social constructionist theories, biolog ical factors are seen as contributing, in interaction with social and psychological factors, to gender development. Transgender refers to the broad spectrum of individuals who tran siently or persistently identify with a gender different from their natal gender. Transsexual denotes an individual who seeks, or has undergone, a social transition from male to female or female to male, which in many, but not all, cases also involves a somatic transition by cross-sex hormone treatment and genital surgery (sex reassignment surgery). Although not all indi viduals will experience distress as a result of such incongruence, many are distressed if the desired physical interventions by means of hormones and/or surgery are not available. A marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender, of at least 6 months’ duration, as manifested by at least six of the following (one of which must be Criterion A1): 1. A strong desire to be of the other gender or an insistence that one is the other gen der (or some alternative gender different from one’s assigned gender).
The normal ear hears a tuning fork about twice as long by air conduction as by bone conduction skin care youtube discount eurax 20 gm fast delivery. If the fork is heard by air conduction after it has ceased to acne vitamin deficiency purchase eurax 20gm visa be audible by bone conduction skin care videos buy eurax without prescription, the test is said to skin care 30 years old discount eurax 20gm on line indicate a Positive Rinne. If the fork is audible for a shorter period by air conduction than by bone conduction, the test result is termed a Negative Rinne. The results should be recorded in actual time heard — for instance, air conduction 62 seconds; bone conduction 30 seconds. Older air crew and individuals exposed to aircraft noise will at times claim hearing loss. Cases of malingering and psychogenic deafness should be referred to the specialist. The applicant is given easy reading material 9 and requested to read out loud and to continue no matter what happens. A Barany noisemaker is then placed next to the supposedly good ear of the applicant while he continues to read. A test subject who is truly deaf in the other ear will automatically raise the intensity of his voice as he continues to read, but the malingerer will continue to read in an even or very slightly elevated tone. The examinee signals by finger signs or by pressing a button when a tone is heard and when it is no longer heard. When a person can hear a given frequency at 10 dB, he can hear that frequency better than average person. Similarly, when the threshold of an ear is no more than 15 dB above zero, the hearing is considered to be normal though not quite as good as average. A threshold of 30 dB at a given frequency means that this tone must be made 30 dB more intense than for the average normal person in order to be heard. The most important range for speech perception is between the frequencies of 500 and 3 000 Hz, and the hearing requirements of Annex 1 are confined to this range. For diagnostic reasons, testing is recommended to be done above and below these frequencies to more thoroughly map the ability of the ear to perceive sound and to indicate minimal losses of which the examinee is unaware but which may be early symptoms of inner ear disease. After finding the threshold for 1 000 Hz, the higher frequencies are tested in the same manner and in ascending order (2 000, 3 000, 4 000, 6 000 and 8 000 Hz). The 1 000 Hz frequency may then be re-checked, followed by the low frequencies in descending order (500, 250 and 125 Hz). Then the ear selector switch is turned to the opposite ear and the sequence is repeated. Failure to mask the good ear is a very common error which leads the examiner to believe that the signal is being perceived in the poor ear (which is under test). Masking is especially important in taking bone conduction measurements, and it should be used with both tuning fork and audiometer examinations. The greater the discrepancy in hearing between the ears, the greater the need for masking the better ear. Audiometers are equipped with a masking sound (a mixture of frequencies, sometimes called "white" noise). Although numerous systems of determining the proper level have been suggested, all require knowledge of how much the threshold for a particular pure tone will be shifted by a given amount of the masking tone. Bone conduction testing is accomplished in the same manner as air conduction testing, except that the tone is delivered through the bone oscillator positioned behind the ear on the mastoid bone. The intensity generally ranges from 20 to +100 dB, and the frequency ranges from 125 to 8 000 Hz. Any postitive (plus) number (normally plotted from the zero line downwards) indicates a degree of hearing loss — the farther down on the audiogram chart, the poorer the threshold and the greater the intensity required to reach it. In addition, the threshold is drawn in red standard symbols (O) for the right ear and in blue symbols (fi) for the left ear. When such checks create difficulties, the reliability of audiometric testing procedures can be verified on the basis of the mean hearing threshold for the various frequencies of at least 20 ears of healthy young persons with normal tympanic membranes and without past ear disease or known exposure to high noise intensity levels. Pure tone audiometry should be carried out in a quiet room in which the background noise intensity is less than 35 dB(A), i. It produces the spoken voice rather than pure tones at controlled intensity levels. The spoken voice may be a “live voice” but is normally a recorded voice, preferably by a selected speaker (air traffic controller). The percentage of words correctly perceived, independently of the type of material used, gives the intelligibility rate (articulation score). This rate, even in normal persons, will depend considerably on the test word material used, predominantly spondee words (already discussed under whispered voice tests) and phonetically balanced words. Tests should aim at an assessment of strictly auditory functions and not depend on the ability to grasp the meaning of codes and sentences heard incompletely, as in unfamiliar situations dangerous misunderstandings from incorrect interpretation might occur. The following material is used in several States for testing speech intelligibility, listed in order of increasing difficulty: 12. Separate curves may be presented on the speech audiogram for spondees, P-B words, figures and short sentences as appropriate. Although there appears to be a satisfactory degree of equivalence for the intelligibility of P-B lists in various languages, better uniformity of testing procedures should be aimed at internationally, referring particularly to the application of background noise. No matter how loud P-B words are presented, the examinee with severe inner ear hearing loss fails to make an adequate score. In fact, if the intensity is increased beyond the range of his most comfortable loudness, his score may even become worse. Speech is essentially compressed into this range, which is sufficient for fairly complete understanding. In persons whose audiogram curves exhibit an abrupt drop, the average of the best two frequencies may give better correlation. This is the person who will often remark, “I can hear you, but I can’t understand you”. These individuals have difficulty in group conversation or when listening against a background of noise. An observation (or history) of appreciable improvement in hearing (even though transient) following the introduction of air is recorded. The use of an impedance meter for tympanometry and reflex measurements can be of great value. Flight safety under these conditions is not impaired as long as it is made certain in each case that intelligibility of speech and perception of signals under background noise, as well as hearing on the ground for briefing and check-list procedures is satisfactory (Annex 1, 6. Such a test can be performed under different conditions for reproducing or simulating flight deck noise: white noise, tape recordings in flight, flight simulators or flight tests may be used. A high noise level is not 10 Siegle otoscope: an otoscope with a bulb attachment by which the air pressure in the external auditory canal can varied. Voice communications between crew members in the cockpit including instructions and routine check-list operations must be clearly understood, also during approach, landing and emergency operations. It is complicated by acoustically significant differences in the use of earphones or overhead speakers for listening to R/T signals. Earphones are often not designed for hearing protection, thus little sound attenuation is provided. Whether earphones or loudspeakers are used on the flight deck, the signal-to-ambient noise ratio can be varied through volume control. An applicant who fails to pass the pure-tone audiometry test should not be declared unfit because of hearing loss, if his speech and signal perception have been demonstrated to be within acceptable limits at the appropriate masking noise level. The volume of the test material should be controllable by the applicant in a manner representative of the aircraft communication equipment. Head-shadow effects, brought about by the head in certain positions, cause poorer discrimination during monaural reception and might affect efficient communication between crew members and should be taken into account. The question of whether the affected individual is a pilot-in-command or co-pilot is relevant because of the seating arrangements. The differences in signal-to-noise ratio necessary for equivalent monaural and binaural perception are usually 3–4 dB. Monaural hearing in both private pilots and professional flight crews should therefore always be investigated and evaluated in accordance with best medical practice as well as assessed under 6. It should be noted that under the provisions of Annex 6, multi-crew aircraft are required to have intercom and radio equipment which can be effectively used in these cases. Here the auditory signals are picked up by a microphone placed beside the poor ear and shunted across, either electrically or acoustically, to the good ear. A non-occluding-type ear mould is used in the good ear which permits the direct reception of auditory stimuli in that ear. Persons fitted with this arrangement report a decided improvement in their ability to understand speech directed to their bad ear as well as some improvement in their ability to understand speech in noisy situations.
Doing so skin care 1006 effective eurax 20 gm, claims Cherkashin acne coat cheap 20gm eurax with visa, would have been an unacceptable admission of weakness (218) skin care clinic order 20gm eurax visa. Cherkashin also makes a number of worthwhile observations skin care yang bagus untuk jerawat purchase eurax australia, both general and individual, about spies. In fact, he notes that services actually recruit very few agents—most are volunteers who recruit themselves when they get the chance. He also points out that almost every spy signs on for personal, selfish reasons—a need for money, a desire for revenge, or just the thrill of espionage—and that it is rare for a spy to volunteer for ideological reasons, despite the efforts of almost all services to portray their assets as brave people fighting for noble causes. As much as he appreciates their efforts, Cherkashin has no illusions about either man or case. Ames, he admits, fell into his lap—“it was unimaginable, but true,” that someone came along who had valuable information and was willing and able to provide it (30). Both men, he points out, performed well as spies and Hanssen—who took control of his case and, Cherkashin claims, successfully hid his identity from the Russians—was especially clever in his tradecraft. Some of this may be chest-thumping, but Cherkashin’s basic point is a good one: A reflexive dismissal of our traitors as contemptible quislings can skew the analyses of their cases and obscure some of the lessons to be learned and applied later. It is a subtle, complex book—in this, it is a good reflection of the counterintelligence world in which Cherkashin spent so many years—but one that offers useful insights and lessons. For these reasons, it is worth the time of anyone interested in the craft and politics of espionage. While on leave from the army in the summer of 1944 before deploying to the Pacific Theater, 2nd Lt. Doing what he was told, Cutler proceeded to Georgetown but arrived after the office had closed. Thinking that the major’s information was outdated, he departed for his parents’ house in Connecticut for the remainder of his leave. While at home, Cutler received an urgent telegram to return to his unit in Kansas, as the movement orders had been advanced. Upon his arrival, he dashed off to his quarters to get his gear when he received a phone call. The adjutant thundered that Cutler needed to report to the commanding officer immediately. His commanding officer in Kansas was furious, believing that Cutler had procured a new job to avoid overseas deployment. Expecting to deploy as a member of a three-man team to be dropped behind enemy lines to link up with the underground, he brushed up on his French. The rapid advancement of Allied forces in France that summer cancelled the need for this battlefield assignment. Cutler set to work tracing German stay-behind agents in France, utilizing information from signals intelligence. By early 1945, Cutler had become an expert in the arcane art of “vetting”—that is, checking the bona fides of purportedly friendly agents. Norman Holmes Pearson, a Yale University professor and the head of X-2 in London, directed Cutler to build up X-2’s vetting section. Cutler’s work was an early step in the professionalization of American intelligence, forming the basis of the modern asset validation system. Lack of resources and the relentless pressure not to delay operations took a toll on Cutler’s health. In March 1945, he collapsed and was taken to the hospital, where he was diagnosed with exhaustion. The doctors prescribed immediate leave, which he spent in Cornwall as the war drew to a close. He recalls with considerable pride the role that he played in the war’s successful conclusion in Europe. With the occupation of Germany, the need for intelligence grew as Allied forces rooted out Nazis. Cutler grew tired of vetting—a “redundant double-check on the operating officers’ judgment”—and sought more action. Initially, these assets were used to spot signs of an underground Nazi resistance movement and to ferret out war criminals in hiding. Slowly but surely, these same agents became useful to the Americans for their knowledge of the Soviet Union. As tensions mounted between East and West, these former enemies became partners in a new and different struggle for the future of Europe. American intelligence regarded Germans (including former army intelligence and internal security officers and their wartime collaborators) as natural resources. Six decades later, we are left with the uncomfortable question: Was the gain worth the pricefi Cutler’s descriptions of these agents, both male and female, are especially illuminating because they offer personal insights that are not necessarily found in the sanitized declassified material. In several cases, he established a real personal rapport with his sources, in part because they worked so closely together in Berlin. A resourceful linguist who had worked for German intelligence during the war, she was also well read in history, philosophy, theater, and politics and, unlike many intellectuals, she was street smart. Although Cutler talks about her in some detail, and although her name is available in declassified records and other sources,1 she is not identified in the book, perhaps out of sensitivity to her prominence in Germany in later years. A keen observer during his travels throughout Europe, he provides insights into life during and after the war and how the local population reacted to the American presence. His letters and photographs are excellent primary sources on X-2 in London, Biebrich, and Berlin. One hopes that he will make his collection available to researchers at a public institution to enhance understanding of counterintelligence in those early days. Cutler clearly regards his wartime and immediate postwar intelligence work as a defining period in his life. Drawn to intelligence but suffering health problems as a result, he debated long and hard about making it a career. In the end, he left the military as a captain, resumed his law practice, married, and moved to Milwaukee. Reviewed by John Hollister Hedley As New York Times reporter Tim Weiner said in a review appearing in his paper, “only in America could the intelligence memoir become a literary genre. Three recent additions have benefited remarkably from media attention, good reviews, and enviable sales. Together they are illustrative of what we will see more of, unless and until the novelty wears off and the news media are less captivated with the subject of what in the world is wrong with intelligence. Inquiries, commission reports, reform legislation, hearings, and headlines have helped put a spotlight on these publications and their authors that is not likely to continue indefinitely. What is somewhat curious is that publication has bestowed a degree of expertise on these authors that largely stems from their books appearing at a propitious time. Melissa Boyle Mahle abbreviated her career before 15 years with an “operational mistake,” best left at that. Publishers cannot resist a titillating (never mind misleading) title, sometimes over the author’s objections. The title of the recent Why Secret Intelligence Fails obliged author Michael Turner to explain that it really doesn’t fail. Together with a publisher’s pressure on an author, they may even distort the content and thus lessen the value of writing that can in fact make a meaningful contribution to intelligence literature and to public understanding of intelligence. One looks in vain for a serious message in her one-dimensional put-down of the Agency’s operational training. Moran doubtless will not endear herself to her erstwhile colleagues, but for a general readership she is a facile writer who comes across as a breezy romantic. What’s right is “a lot,” including good leadership, an analytic capability second to none, and continuing recruitment of the best and brightest from college campuses. Paseman’s criticism is gentle and conventional: Noting the adverse impact of the operations directorate’s dwindling numbers, foreign language deficiency, risk aversion, and cutbacks in case officers overseas before 9/11 no longer constitutes a news bulletin, no matter how accurate. Melissa Boyle Mahle’s Denial and Deception is the most substantive and useful memoir of the three, being a balanced mix of personal story and thoughtful, wellresearched perspective on the Agency and its leadership. She, too, laments risk aversion and draw-downs in the field, plus the lack of language competence and, at least by implication, the Agency’s xenophobia that results in failing to utilize the linguistic skill and cultural understanding that hyphenated-Americans have to offer.
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