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If its logic were accepted more widely mens health june 2013 purchase rogaine 2 60 ml with mastercard, parentage could be derived in the first instance from the biological father—a transformative shif in the law of parenthood man health 9th buy rogaine 2 60 ml with amex. Critically prostate on ct buy rogaine 2 60 ml on line, though androgen hormone women purchase rogaine 2 visa, this shif would be consistent with equality commitments that already have reshaped other aspects of family law, and it would eradicate some of the asymmetries that continue to pervade parentage law. Voluntary Acknowledgments of Parentage While the marital presumption addresses children born inside marriage, states maintain statutory frameworks to recognize the parents of nonmarital terms like mother, father, husband, and wife may be seen to carry their gendered connotations. They contended, against the allegation of the birth mother, that they had arranged for the birth mother to act as a surrogate. The parentage code provides that the mother-child relationship may be established “by proof of her having given birth to the child or by any other proof specified in [the code]. The same result could be reached through a gender-neutral and nonbiological “holding out” presumption. The identification of a second legal parent alleviates some of the burdens experienced by nonmarital children. Accordingly, they efectively facilitate parental recognition on purely social grounds. Accordingly, in most states, the nonbiological mother cannot establish parentage upon the child’s birth. Nonbiological fathers can deploy their heterosexual relationship to achieve parentage, while nonbiological mothers are excluded. Lawmakers in these states have used the concept of consent to build statutory frameworks that open paths to nonadoptive parentage based on social, and not simply biological, grounds. Approaches to both donor insemination and gestational surrogacy illustrate this point. In every state, the man married to a woman who conceives with donor sperm is treated as the legal father. See Joslin, supra note 1, at 1222 (“[T]he most appropriate solution is to extend the consent = legal parent rule to all children born through assisted reproduction, regardless of the marital status, gender, or sexual orientation of the intended parents. In most states, though, his consent would be legally unavailing if he were not married to the child’s moth428 er. While this presents obstacles to diferent-sex couples, its greatest impact has been on same-sex couples, who rely more heavily on donor insemination to have children and historically were excluded from marriage. For example, as Maine’s newly enacted parentage code provides, “a person who consents to assisted reproduction by a woman. Even as states open various forms of assisted reproduction on equal terms, they might still devise specific regulations for particular practices. Because surrogacy raises concerns with the exploitation of low-income women and the commodification of children and women’s reproductive labor, lawmakers may continue to treat surrogacy with special caution. Those states that have authorized gestational surrogacy for both diferent-sex and same-sex couples have done so through specific regulatory frameworks that seek to protect intended parents, surrogates, and children. Regulating in ways that attend to the interests of surrogates does not mean that surrogates possess parental rights. Instead, these states cut of claims to parental recognition and recognize the intended parents at the child’s birth. The state’s parentage code separately regulates gestational surrogacy by providing that, if certain condi430 tions relating to protection of the surrogate’s interests are met, intended parents “are by operation of law the. Reorienting Constitutional Law on Parenthood Attention to family law’s treatment of parent-child relationships makes visible emergent constitutional questions. These questions may first arise in state courts under state law but will likely confront federal courts eventually. Constitutional precedents on the rights of women and gays and lesbians, including with respect to family and parenting relationships, demonstrate a strong commitment to including as full participants those who have been traditionally excluded. Nonetheless, courts have not determined what these precedents mean for purposes of the specific relationships addressed in this Article. This Section explores how, in response to significant state-level reform, shifing patterns of family formation, and evolving norms of gender and sexuality, federal constitutional law may develop in ways that expand the space of parental recognition. Equal Protection and Parental Recognition Today, parental recognition implicates questions of equality—including on grounds of gender, sexuality, and marital status. But equal protection doctrine, as currently constituted, may struggle to adequately address issues arising in parenthood. The following discussion considers doctrinal features that present obstacles to efective constitutional oversight in the law of parental recognition, looks to marriage equality as a site in which these features did not prevent meaningful constitutional review, and then considers how law might develop on questions of parental recognition. Contested Sites of Equality Law Some features of current equal protection doctrine may constrain developments that promote gender and sexual-orientation equality in the law of parental recognition. As Part I showed, the Court has permitted gender diferentiation in the legal regulation of parenthood, justifying such diferentiation by resort to reproductive biology. Reasoning first articulated at the dawn of modern sex-equality doctrine continues to supply authority for the diferential treatment of mothers and fathers. The failure to see gender diferentiation in parenthood as a sex-equality problem led law to devalue the social contributions of unmarried biological fathers. In the contemporary regulation of par2347 the yale law journal 126:2260 2017 entage, this failure also leads law to discount the social contributions of women who separate parenthood from biological ties. The Court has focused on questions of classification and discriminatory purpose in ways that mask inequality. For example, the Court has resisted an approach to sex equality that understands “legislative classification[s] concerning pregnancy 433 [as]. Courts might conclude that so long as the government treats nonbiological unmarried parents the same (closing paths to their parental recognition), it acts in accordance with principles of equal protection. Compounding the problem, courts might view access to marriage as curing discrimination against same-sex couples and thus may give the government wide latitude in drawing distinctions that harm same-sex couples’ nonmarital fami437 lies. Certainly, these doctrinal features complicate efective constitutional oversight in the law of parental recognition. Yet, critically, these features did not prove dispositive in judicial approaches to marriage equality. Instead, courts considered social meaning in ways that led them to repudiate forms of exclu438 sion that had long been taken for granted. Scholars have pointed out how Obergefell may authorize discrimination against nonmarital family bonds. The Court condemned the laws because they “serve[d] to disre444 spect and subordinate” gays and lesbians. Of course, there are strong arguments that laws prohibiting same-sex marriage classify on the basis of sexual orientation. As Ackerman argues, the reasoning in Windsor focused on “social meaning,” “moving beyond the law world to the lifeworld. Sexual-Orientation Equality and Parental Recognition the approach to equality that guided resolution of the marriage question could shape approaches to questions of parental recognition. Disputes emerging in state courts under state constitutional law are illustrative. In ordering the state to apply its marital presumption to lesbian couples, the Iowa Supreme Court relied on its earlier decision holding the state’s marriage law unconstitu447 tional. Even though the law referred to “mothers” and “fathers”—just as the marriage law referred to women and men—the court rejected the argument that it classified only on the basis of sex, and not sexual orientation. Instead, the court concluded that “the refusal to list the nonbirthing lesbian spouse on the child’s birth certificate ‘diferentiates implicitly on the basis of sexual orien448 tation. For the court, the efect of the law on same-sex couples appeared more important than a formal approach to questions of classification. The concern with social meaning in marriage equality jurisprudence extends to parent-child relationships. The exclusion of same-sex couples, the Windsor Court explained, not only “demeans the couple,” but also “humiliates tens of 449 thousands of children now being raised by same-sex couples. Even the Court’s earlier cases on unmarried fathers were driven by concern for children’s welfare. Hodges, which noted that the right to marry provides benefits not only for same-sex 453 couples, but also the children being raised by those couples. Indeed, a Louisiana appellate court recently reevaluated the state’s treatment of unmarried nonbiological parents based on Obergefell, which the court read to protect 454 not only marriage but also “the decision to start a family. Unlike diferent-sex family formation, same-sex family formation ordinarily—almost necessarily—features nonbiological parental ties. Accordingly, treating same-sex couples like diferent-sex couples is an empty promise so long as biological connection remains parenthood’s animating logic. Nonrecognition and resort to adoption are concrete harms infiicted on same-sex parents and their children. The regime that imposes these burdens treats same-sex couples’ families as less deserving of respect and recognition.

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We investigated two mental work will be necessary to address such questions, and we, such questions in the present study with the hypotheses related to therefore, encourage researchers to experimentally test our modterror management theory—that is, message content (presence vs. Although neither of these hypotheses was linked to liked peers) differ from mass media in effectiveness of supported, the potential to test these types of interactions prompts delivered fear appealsfi For example, might fear appeal Conclusion effectiveness be moderated by interactions of culture (a factor of the audience) with the kind of behavior addressed by the fear To conclude, fear appeals are effective, and our synthesis orgaappealfi Cross-cultural differences have rarely been explored in the nized and identified factors that make them even more effective. Whether this is true and whether it interacts with related conclusions by meta-analytically testing a wide variety of influfindings is an empirical question that could be fruitfully explored ential fear appeal theories using the largest and most comprehenin future research. We believe our analysis has More important, aspects other than message content, behavior, provided a thorough overview of the state of the literature and also and audience may moderate the effectiveness of fear appeal comgenerated a variety of important and exciting future directions. However, based on our review of the literature, there simply appeared to be too little research on other aspects to include References them in the current framework. Three potential aspects worth noting are the source of the communication, the subjective expeReferences marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the rience of the message recipient, and the channel used to transmit meta-analysis. Enhancing flossing compliance in persuasion demonstrating that aspects of a message’s source can college freshmen. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan important moderator for fear appeal effectiveness. The effect of a ‘fear-arousing’ safety film on physfear appeals from benevolent groups. However, most empirical studies did not detail efficacy of protection and access to protection on decision making: A source information in a manner that allowed us to test such further test of protection motivation theory. Effects of fear-arousing communivariation across existing studies on this dimension. The Journal of Social ing on our previous distinction between fear appeals and fear, the Psychology, 104, 81–95. The health belief model and personal health behavempirical studies simply do not measure participants’ subjective ior. Compliance with a medical the effects of fear appeals are simply driven by induced negative regimen for asthma: A test of the health belief model. Public Health affect or high arousal, and the specific experience of fear is Reports, 93, 268–277. Does a threat appeal experience led us to not include these as aspects of the current moderate reckless drivingfi Third, consistent with the focus of the persuasion literature S0001-4575(99)00042-1 on source, message, audience, and channel of communication as Berkowitz, J. The influence of sensation-seeking and message key components to understand in the persuasion process (Shannon choice on responses to fear appeals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, & Weaver, 1949), are certain channels of communication more Michigan State University. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and prepa627–633. Why scare tactics in drug messaging Former Smokers campaign provided outstanding return on investment prevention don’t work. Regulatory fit and related outcomes: Results from a national experiment of smokers. Messages that increase women’s motivate acceptance of action recommendations: Evidence for a positive intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: Results from quanbias in the processing of persuasive messages. Fear arousal and persuasion: A re-examination of the defensive avoidance hypothesis. Japanese Journal of Experimental Soappeals on the perception of self-efficacy and message acceptance. Persuasion facilitating effects under irrelevant fearof communications on attitude change. Effects of fear-arousing communications on resistance subject, choice, and fear arousal on attitude change. Personality differences associated with A terror management health model for behavioral health promotion. Fifteen years of fear arousal: Research on threat Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 11, 93–103. Re-thinking culture driving epidemic: Mortality salience priming effects on attitudes and and personality: How self-regulatory universals create cross-cultural behavioral intentions. Journal of Consumer message-relevant affect in road safety messages: Should road safety Research, 22, 448–459. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota. Identifying effective components preventing failure: Cultural differences in motivation by positive and of alcohol misuse prevention programs. Finding theoryand evidence-based alternatives to fear efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. International Journal of Psychology, 49, of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 469–479. A field experiment on fear arousal with on breast self-examination attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Anxiety, comprehension, and susceptibility to social ficity of recommendation upon attitudes and behavior. Sources of resistance to fearhealth-related behavior: A meta-analytic review of protection motivation arousing communications on smoking and lung cancer. Journal of Marketing Redownloading: the effects of threat appeals, past behavior, subjective search, 49, 383–393. Improving the efficacy of appearance-based sun exposure protection motivation theory on intentions to comply with safer sex interventions with the terror management health model. Effects of components of 10410230701808327 protection-motivation theory on adaptive and maladaptive coping with a O’Keefe, D. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 596– types does not vary as a function of the persuasive outcome assessed: 604. Not too scared to think carefully: Optimism fosters physiological arousal upon emotion, attitudes, and cigarette smoking. Fear appeals and attitude effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related change: Effects of a threat’s noxiousness, probability of occurrence, and decision. Quand l’engagement precede l’appel a` la peur: and persuasion: the application of dual-process models. Unpublished Une forme de communication engageante [When commitment precedes fear doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. International model of defense against conscious and unconscious death-related Journal of Psychology, 49, 63–70. Fear-arousing and empathyof varying levels of fear appeals: An anti-speeding advertising experiarousing appeals to help: the pathos of persuasion. Effects of public education about Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 1716–1744. The effects of fear arousal, fear Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 10, 183–198. The effects of high and low fear attention allocation in the processing of a fear appeal and its relation to messages about drugs. Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor prevention: the role of anticipated regret. Evaluation of the Boost a graphic warning label in advertisements for reduced-exposure products: Implications for persuasion and policy. Journal of Applied Social ’em in the Back Seat Program: Using fear and efficacy to increase Psychology, 38, 281–293. Putting the fear back into fear appeals: the extended to fear-arousing condom advertisements. A meta-analysis of fear appeals: Implications for effective public health campaigns. Health Education & Behavtection motivation theory components in predicting exercise intentions ior, 27, 591–615. The P&C Board is particularly interested in encouraging members of underrepresented groups to participate more in this process. Please note the following important points: • To be selected as a reviewer, you must have published articles in peer-reviewed journals.

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It will include most of the foods you enjoy eating like: milk, meat, chicken, eggs, fish cheese, beans, bread, tortillas, fruits, and vegetables. As much as possible, your meal plan will include foods you are familiar with and that may be part of your family’s customs and traditions. You will learn how to use “portion control” with favorite foods which might raise your blood sugar too much. You will be asked to eat every two to three hours so you should not get hungry during the day. If you are using diabetes medication do not skip meals or snacks because your blood sugars may go to low. It is important that you limit sweets and sugary foods like: cakes, donuts, sweet breads, cookies, candy, ice cream, regular Jell-O, syrup, honey, regular soda pop, juices and fruit drinks. Your health care team should know about everything you are doing to lower your blood sugar. Your blood sugar goal one hour after the start of all meals is less than 130 mg/dl. Foods you need to avoid at breakfast are: v fruit juice or drinks (avoid at all times unless your blood sugar is low) v fresh fruit v instant hot or cold cereals v milk or yogurt Some choices for a good breakfast are: v fi sandwich, v 1 corn tortilla with cheese, or v 1 slice of whole-wheat toast with an egg. Talk to someone on your team if you are having problems with your meal plan so it can be changed. A small drop of blood from the side of your fingertip is needed to test your blood sugar. Because blood sugar numbers rise and fall, there are different numbers that are normal before and after meals. Your plasma blood sugar numbers should be: v below 90 mg/dl plasma, in the morning before breakfast. Following your meal plan and exercising is often all that you need to do to keep your blood sugar normal. This is not their fault, some women with gestational diabetes are not able to make enough insulin to cover their needs during pregnancy. If you need insulin, you will be taught to give yourself insulin shots just under the skin in your stomach area. Women are taught to move the insulin shot to a different areas of the stomach each time it is given. Your doctor or nurse will show you how, when and where to give yourself the shots. Also ask when and who you should call if you have questions or if the baby isn’t moving. The doctor can even measure the amount of fluid (amniotic fluid) around your baby. Some mothers with gestational diabetes can deliver babies that weigh more than 9 pounds (macrosomia). If your baby is too large to deliver naturally, you may need a cesarean section (sometimes called a csection). It is common to repeat this test one to two times a week because they help to determine how your baby is doing. If anything about your pregnancy does not seem normal or feel right to you, talk to your doctor right away. Here are some signs that you should report right away: v A severe headache v Your baby moves less or more than normal v Severe swelling of face, fingers or feet v Blurry vision with or without a headache v Pain or burning when you urinate v A fever v Backache or period-like cramps that come and go v Tightening of your uterus with or without pain. The timing of delivery depends on your due date and the results of all of your tests. If your tests are not normal, your doctor will talk with you about when and how to deliver your baby safely. It is a good idea to take some classes with your partner or another friend so that you know what to expect in labor and delivery. The classes will help you know how to breastfeed which is a good idea for both you and your baby. The suggestions below may help you maintain good health and may reduce your chance of getting type 2 diabetes. All women with gestational diabetes must be tested for type 2 diabetes after their baby is born. If your blood sugar is still high, your health care team will explain what you need to do. Women with gestational diabetes have a bigger chance of getting diabetes, called type 2 diabetes. This is why it is important that you have your blood sugar checked once a year from now on. It is important that you do not get pregnant before you are retested for diabetes. After delivery, you should use family planning until you are ready to be pregnant again. This spacing gives your body a chance to heal and restore itself before another pregnancy. This would lower your chances of having gestational diabetes again or developing tye 2 diabetes. If you are overweight, even losing 10 pounds can lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. There are many things you can do to keep a healthy weight after you have your baby: Eat a healthy diet v Choose foods low in fat and high in fiber such as vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals or breads, and beans or legumes. Fill half of your plate with vegetables, 1/4 plate with a grain or other starch and 1/4 plate with protein. Three ounces of meat can have from 3 to 39 grams of fat, depending on your choice. Lean meats include: low fat cold cuts (95% to 97% fat free lunch meats), extra lean ground beef such as ground round or lean ground turkey, chicken or turkey breast without the skin, trimmed beef round, pork tender loin, and unbreaded fish. For example: one teaspoon of oil is equal to 5 grams of fat, one tablespoon of oil is equal to 15 grams of fat. Walking is great exercise and it is very helpful for lowering blood sugar after meals! Also Serving Size 3/4 cup (200g) pay attention to how many servings are in the Servings per Container 11 container. Foods with Total Fat 1g 2% 40 calories or less per serving are “lowSaturated Fat 0g 0% calorie”. Foods that Sodium 80mg 3% have 3 grams of fat or less per serving are Potassium 100g 3% “low-fat” (For example, this food would be a Total Carbohydrates 14g 5% low fat food since it only has 2 grams of fat). Vitamin A 0% * Vitamin C 0% the “Total Carbohydrate” number includes Calcium 6% * Iron 2% fiber, sugar, and sugar alcohols because they * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 are types of carbohydrate. In this lower depending on your calorie needs: example, fiber and sugar grams are listed Calories 2,000 2,500 under the “Total Carbohydrates” to show that Total Fat Less than 65g 80g they have been counted and you will not have Sat Fat Less than 20g 25g to count them separately. Fiber Total Carb 300g 375g Dietary Fiber 25g 30g How much fiber is in one servingfi If you ate 1 1/2 cups of this food, you would be eating two servings, and you have to double the information on the label. You would be eating 140 calories, 2 g of fat, 28 g of carbohydrates, and 4 grams on fiber. Recent research has shown that if you have gestational diabetes and you breastfeed, you may reduce the chance of you and your baby having type 2 diabetes later in life. Here are some tips to help you breastfeed: u Breastfeed your baby often, at least every 3 hours. Now that you have read about you and your baby, if you have questions or worries, write them down on page 26.

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