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The sensibility of humans tends to erectile dysfunction guidelines 2014 buy avana line narrow erectile dysfunction after radiation treatment prostate cancer 50mg avana with mastercard, as they are more and more involved in an artifcial context erectile dysfunction drugs otc purchase 100 mg avana fast delivery. As humans interact with automatons erectile dysfunction causes natural treatment trusted 200mg avana, they may forget their conjunctive fnesse and their ability to detect signs of irony and of seduction. The more humans grow lone ly and nervous, the more they seek the company of the less emotionally engaging androids. The more they seek the company of the less emotionally engaging androids, the more humans will grow lonely and nervous. In June 2016, Wired magazine featured an article about online dating: When sites like Match. You picked an age range, sure, and height requirements, fne, but your options expanded. Thanks to the all-inclusive power of the Internet, you were scrolling through goths and triathletes and electricians and investment bankers and chefs, and suddenly it didn’t seem so crazy to start trading emails with someone who rooted for the wrong sports team or even lived across the country. These people didn’t go to your college, and they didn’t know your friends (or your mom). But 20 years later, that diverse pool of potential daters hasn’t grown broader and deeper— it’s been subdivided into stupidly specifc zones. Two months after the League’s November 2014 launch, the wait list was 75,000 people long. This, let’s be clear, is not a good thing—and not just because 323 elitism is lame. The League is just one of a gaggle of services that appeal to the better-heeled crowd; there’s also Sparkology, the Dating Lounge, and Luxy (‘Tinder, minus the poor people’—no joke). The most selective of all, Raya, is invite-only—you basically have to be a celebrity with a sizable In-stagram following to be asked. Apps now exist for pairing people based on the right astrological sign (Align), an afnity for sci-f (Trek Passions), similar eating habits (Veggiemate), and a love of weed (My420Mate). Having interests in common is not a bad thing—especially if, say, religious identity is important to you— but making sure eve-ry potential match has a beard (Bristlr) or is at least 6’4″ (Tall People Meet) means interacting only with the segment of humanity we think we’ll like. It’s wrong and also inefective, because the truth is, most of us are pretty terrible at knowing what, or who, we actually want. Franzen depicts sexual imagery of the online gen eration as a mix of hyper-sexualization and of lack of eroticism: porn hyper-stimulation and frigidity: the kiddies were perennially enticing and perennially unsatisfy ing in much the same way that coke was unsatisfying: whenever 324 he was of it, he remembered it as fantastic and unbeatable and craved it, but as soon as he was on it again he remembered that it wasn’t fantastic at all, it was sterile and empty: neuro-mechanis tic, death-favored. Nowadays especially, the young chicks were hyperactive in their screwing, hurrying through every position known to the species, doing this and that and the other, their middle snatches too unfragrant and closely shaved to even register as human body parts. It’s a political problem, as the political mobilization of social subjectivity will be impossible as long as the body is stifened and separated from the networked brain. It is also a therapeutic problem, as the stifening and loneliness of the body provokes a sufer ing that is manifest in the epidemics of depression and panic that loom on the horizon. It is also, and foremost, the dimension where poetry, music, and dance dwell and fnd their scope. Artists are the vanguard of the pro cess of reactivation of the erotic body, of cognitive labor, of the general intellect which is the core of semiocapi talism and may lead to the emancipation from it. It is assumed that engaging in them will result in a more stable, mindful and cheerful subjectivity. Taking care of nutrition and regular physical activity mark one of the paths that should be followed. Spiritual and esoteric 328 practices add techniques in order to transform nega tive states and feelings. Instead of spirituality, one can also engage in therapy and meet the needs of mental hygiene in this form. Self-care comes to an interesting point, when narcissism, personal and social precarity and privilege intersect and are accessorized with a broad network of products. This type of care for the self is not only a marketing construction or a lifestyle. It is pres ent in the countries of western Europe and countries of developed capitalism, more than in regions like Eastern Europe or the Balkans. It is a response to processes that a young bohemian class of freelancing cultural workers currently deals with. These processes are the continuous workfows of the contemporary project economy and they produce a lack: People continuously stumble from one exhausting precarious workfow into another one and another one but the fantasy that this time the separation of life and work will succeed continues, accompanied by the dream of success and naturalized by the pursuit of “what one loves to do”. Typical strategies for the recreation of a work-life-balance are: learning to say no, learning to do less emotional labor and generally learning to take care of the self. But the achieved types of care easily result in strange, neurotic rituals: It is a situation in which we’re trying to keep ourselves safe exactly from the condi tions that we’re accepting or we have to accept: condi tions that are neoliberal and precarious, which originate 329 in social, economical and political problems and not personal issues. This is why the individual, the only self that we have, will never be able to resolve this neurot ic state and this is the moment when a scented candle comes in. Talking about the subjectivity of the contemporary cultural worker/artist, we have to stress that we talk about a specifc class: a class that consists of many privileged individuals, a class that is trying to refect on those issues and a class that sees itself as an ally to many underprivileged people, who on the other side, probably have diferent coping mechanisms. In order for us to be able to take care of the self by engaging in the outlined practices, no matter how precarious conditions might be, we are already deeply involved in the game of ‘artis tic life’ – and the subjectivity that is to be assembled and saved by these practices is not just any kind of self, but that privileged, western, neoliberal, fexible, inconsistent self. The compulsiveness of this project is mostly refected in the fact that it is not possible to “take care of one self” sometimes, or “a bit” – but like every practice, this one is to be maintained over the course of time and demands regularity and dedication. Just as one swallow doesn’t make a summer, one avocado does not make a good self-carer. The word1 is that only regular body practice, regular monitoring of 330 what one consumes and when, regular bedtimes will compensate and soothe the accumulated stress in be tween. This is of course almost impossible to achieve and therefore the claim “you need to take care of yourself” is usually said with anticipation of a breakdown. It is not a nice thing to hear: it’s a menacing claim and it’s marking the impossibility of the subject to control its emotions and actions. Even if there is an idea what this practice should be, it still signifes the non-existing practice, a practice that can only be from now on. The concrete decision on how to realize this, is much more connected to what one consumes than to the process of knowing, regulat ing and monitoring oneself, before entering a public sphere and engaging with the community as a subject. Another aspect of this complex is the fetishization of leisure time: We’re not able to just do whatever we want when we’re not working, or to be precise, when we think that we’re not working. One doesn’t just go and buy tea in a bio shop or have a spontaneous bubble bath – rather, one has to believe that this is how free time me time is spent usefully, because one is actively not-working which is even better than just not work ing. On the one hand, self-care operates as a substitute for these states of non-working, and on the other hand, for coping mechanisms against exhaustion, depression, having to go through yet another job search, emotional, structural, social and political instability, which are the 331 characteristics of the cultural project economy. Consequently, the activities described above get over charged with signifcance and become the only tools for general wellbeing. This categorization establishes a de mand which entails that every time we’re not working we have to ask ourselves: Are we doing this right…? In the following, we frst want to contextualize the tendency sketched above in its relation to late capital ism, secondly we’ll ask for other notions of critique that are available to the worn out subjects that are in need of self-care and thirdly, we want to manifest and dive into the states of negativity that have produced the necessity to actively take care of the self and see what happens if we persevere in them. We will try to understand some thing about the functions that are adopted by self-care as a concept and a practice in the contemporary project economy. In one word, all of the struggles that originate in pre carious working conditions and produce exhaustion and anxiety fnd their articulations in the notion of self-care that seemingly manages these problems. Self-awareness is becoming a term that describes the ability to de termine if we would proft from sleeping until eleven tomorrow which might just be a good idea. Paying our bills in time is another organizational structure that can be called self-care. Still, these actions of micromanage 332 ment are not a way of opposing structural problems on an appropriate level but, to the contrary, they create a new feld of competition: Who is writing the best lists and who has the most regular body practice in order to feel less shitty? If we meet three friends in the same week who are working on their projects and are successively growing more and more insane, depressed, stressed and keep questioning their whole existence because of the work they are doing, this is not a coincidence. Still, the only tool to counter this shared state seems to be to remind each other of very basic things, which if we’re really honest have never efectively ended a crisis alone: Why are you not going to bed before midnight? Well, no one actually wants to hear another person complaining about the things that everyone knows, you idiot, because they are busy managing their own busy schedule, job applications, grants, and they are also nervous about that one project money that is al ways late, ‘and they really counted on it’. So please, just breathe in, breathe out and take some responsibility for your moods and bad feelings. The accumulation of material and immaterial prod ucts is re-establishing a sphere of privacy that has been given up on in the universal overlaps of life and work. If 333 our friends who formerly constituted this sphere are not available for moments of relaxation because they are part of each other’s projects or even if not will sure tell each other about their current projects when we meet, we turn to the lavender scented candle and try to forget. Together with our candles, our massages, yoga classes and our avocados, we fnd relief by temporarily adopting a subjectivity for which it is still possible and allowed to delve into the private.
It is not necessary for them to impotence organic cheap avana online amex be instructed in humanistic behaviour erectile dysfunction drugs trimix discount avana 200mg overnight delivery, and the behaviour of love for the human being in general erectile dysfunction treatment san francisco proven 50mg avana. The methodology itself is designed in such a way that teaching with love is not a question of learning erectile dysfunction doctor exam order avana online from canada. For example, the teacher enters the classroom, announces that he/she is a film director and is going to make a film and invites them to take part as actors. So the game starts here and all through the course the students are film actors with new names and professions. So, out of love for the students, the teacher next gives them the chance to choose new names, professions and biographies in the classroom so that if they make a mistake it will be attributed to the new personality. This psychological approach helps students to save their face but teachers should not discuss it with the students. As has already been mentioned, memorization is imperceptible and pleasant and activates the paraconscious, helping to store knowledge in the long-term memory. Besides, the songs, jokes, classical music and art in general as well as aesthetics as a teaching method with Suggestopaedia prove every time that the method is based on the love for the human being. The students can feel the atmosphere of love and they build firm and friendly relations among themselves which later transfer to their social lives. This is another wise trap of nature: You would like to learn five to ten times quicker, easier, in a more pleasant manner and experiencing a positive effect on your health. It is evident that the mind can 17 neither acquire a huge amount of information without love, nor think creatively without freedom. It is interesting that the Hungarian genius poet and revolutionary Shandor Petoeffi wrote the th following relating to his poetical and revolutionary activities in the 19 century, “There are two things that I need on earth – love and freedom. Therefore, love and freedom are necessary for the development and happiness of the human being not only in science but in many other spheres of life as well. There are a number of other differences between the approaches of suggestopaedic teaching (desuggestive teaching) and all other methods, but those mentioned above are the most drastic. For ages the golden proportion has attracted the minds of many eminent philosophers, scientists, architects, etc. He illustrated a book on the golden proportion and published it in Venice in 1509. It was found as a primary and essential principle in a great many places: in the dimensions of Egyptian pyramids, in the proportions of human body, in the size of the paintings in art galleries, in architecture and in nature – in the proportions of flowers and trees. It is known that once Buddha articulated his Flower Sermon without uttering a word, just holding a flower in silence before his listeners. Through the pattern of a flower he showed the unity and harmony in nature to them. Let us divide a segment into two unequal parts, so that the ratio of the small part to the big one should be equal to the ration of the big part to the whole. Expressed in equation form: A:B=B:(A+B) Expressed mathematically, this is a x x - = - x a 18 What we get is the square equation x²+ax-a²=0, and the result after we solve the equation is x=0. It is expressed by a sequence of integers in which each integer is the sum of the two preceding integers: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89… etc. If any integer from the Fibonacci series were taken and divided by the next one in the series, the result would be the number 0. In accordance with many authors, Gyorgy Doczi pointed it out in the structure of the daisy, in the aureole of the sunflower, in the keys and the structure of musical instruments, in the leaves of the lilac, in the structure of the rhododendron, begonia and cobweb, in the spirals of fingerprints, in the Pythagorean musical system, in certain folk dresses and caps, in the design of some Mexican carpets, in the war paints of American Indians etc. Many authors have also found it in Egyptian hieroglyphs, in the evolution of various writings, in a series of prehistoric stone monuments for measuring the time and seasons, in the Cheops pyramid and a number of other pyramids, in the Tower of Babel, in biorhythms, in the structure of a number of marine animals and fish, in the bony structure of the dinosaur, frog, and horse, in the vertebral column, in bee flight, in snowflakes, in the spiral structure of certain galaxies, in the structure of insects and butterflies, in the famous drawing of the structure of human body by Leonardo da Vinci, in the well known Pythagorean triangle, in the ancient monuments in Greece, in the Tibetan figures of Buddha, in the pagoda of the Yakushiji temple in Japan, in the sculptures of a Chinese monk in a moment of enlightenment, in modern aircraft construction, in various mandala patterns and a series of other cases. Emil Georgiev pointed out the golden proportion in the basis of various sides in the structure of music. But within its phases as well as in the force of the intonation and dynamics one can see that the golden section is taken into consideration. For example, the active concert session for the first lesson in English (according to the Foreign Language Teachers Suggestopaedic Manual, 1988, p. And the second lesson has active concert session of 40 minutes and a passive concert session of 25 minutes. After all, a lasting concern of the teacher is to elaborate an intuitive sense of the harmonious eternal proportions and observe these where possible for him/her. Thus he/she will take care of the more harmonious dynamics of the process of learning. I published this term for the first time in Bulgarian in 1966 (Suggestopaedia – a way to hypermnesia in learning, Narodna Prosveta magazine, 1966, 6, 23-41). I applied this term in English in 1967 (Suggestopaedia and memory, Proceedings of the International Psychosomatic Week, Rome, 1967, 535-539). With the publishing of this new term I unwillingly created many hardships for myself since there wasn’t a traditional stable meaning, which meant i had to explain it all the time. After the publishing of the primary research I didn’t have the opportunity until now to explain in a more understandable way the very true meaning of the term. I was primarily interested in non-hypnotic or even non-clinical wakeful suggestive impact i. This means, not only what but how to propose so that for you this should be the most acceptable and natural thing, and the anticipated phenomenon will occur. Adequate orchestration is required to involve the paraconscious with peripheral perceptions and affective stimuli. With this communicative suggestion, as we call it, sometimes resembling classical art and the placebo effect we conducted a group of experiments which pleased us and astonished our colleagues, for these experiments proved successful. These experiments were gradually expanded into other fields as well but primarily in education. I will make an attempt to expose comprehensibly even for the layman the very essence from my 50 years of experience in the field of suggestology and 40 years in the field of 23 Suggestopaedia. I will share the evolution of my thoughts regarding the reserves (the unused potential capacity) of the brain and mind for learning through suggestopedia that I have developed, and now recently already through Desuggestopaedia. It is not clinical suggestion in its all non-hypnotic versions and even less hypnosis in the process of learning with its pseudosecrecy that I was interested in either in the past or at present. The reserves (not used potential capacity) of human brain and mind, and the ways to reach these reserves safely, were and still are my great dream… I have always considered that metaphorically speaking we humans are fallen angels, locked up gods, hypnotised souls that have believed in our restricted humbleness. This is because any transgression of the sociohypnotically suggested range of human capacity is penalised. The history of many peoples has documented the age old tradition of massacring the gifted people who stand higher than their compatriots. For example, there is a legend that ancient Bulgarians two or three thousand years ago killed the most gifted individuals because they believed that this was the way to send them as ambassadors to Tangra, their god (they had only one god). Direct killing is not applied but it is a well-known fact how most geniuses live and die in poverty and oblivion for they cannot (and some of them probably do not want to) combine “heaven and earth”. Maybe this is the reason for me, when I encounter an exceptional young talent, to feel joy and pity at the same time. Many people do not understand why I say so often, “Oh, he/she is an exceptional talent…, sorry! All at once, talents are not objects of intrigues, not any stranger and incomprehensible, not rudely used and outcasts of society, not hungry… You might say, “Those are stories for children. And this dream incessantly whispered, talked and shouted to me, “There is a method, there is a form of communication for “locked up gods” and for “hypnotized souls who have believed in their humbleness”. If this happens we all will learn and develop much faster and in a more creative way… and with joy. We will understand and accept them, and maybe some of us will also be seen to be gifted people. I will not further elaborate my thoughts because you might say that we are really entering a world of fairytales. Fortune had decided to give me a great present, though I did not deserve such attention. And here is the present: In my psychotherapeutic work I had once a very interesting case. In 1955 a patient of mine, who was an arch welder attending evening high school classes, told me “Doctor, now I have to go to the evening class.
Most of the furniture impotence solutions buy cheap avana 100 mg on-line, save for some chairs in front of the gray teletype-style terminals erectile dysfunction drugs australia buy avana overnight, consisted of large pillows which people variously used as seat cushions erectile dysfunction treatment testosterone cheap 100mg avana mastercard, beds pills to help erectile dysfunction buy avana 50mg without prescription, or playful weapons. A faded green rug covered the area, and against a wall was a battered bookshelf loaded with one of the best, and most active, paperback science-fiction collections in the area. Some businessmen tried to program the computer to predict stock prices, and spent infinite amounts of time on that chimera. Albrecht was quoted in the Saturday Review as saying, "We want to start friendly neighborhood computer centers, where people can walk in like they do in a bowling alley or penny arcade and find out how to have fun with computers. Nelson was the self published author of Computer Lib, the epic of the computer revolution, the bible of the hacker dream. He was stubborn enough to publish it when no one else seemed to think it was a good idea. Son of actress Celeste Holm and director Ralph Nelson ("Lilies of the Field"), product of private schools, student at fancy liberal arts colleges. Nelson was an admittedly irascible perfectionist, his main talent that of an "innovator. But his head was, he later explained, helplessly "swimming in ideas" until he came in contact with a computer and learned some programming. He would walk out of his office in a job at a high-tech corporation and see "the incredible bleakness of the place in these corridors. Finally, out of anger and desperation, he decided to write a "counterculture computer book. The book was in two parts: one was called "Computer Lib," the computer world according to Ted Nelson; and the other, "Dream Machines," the computer future according to Ted Nelson. Shelling out two thousand dollars out of pocket "a lot to me," he would say later he printed a few hundred copies of what was a virtual handbook to the Hacker Ethic. I want to see computers useful to individuals, and the sooner the better, without necessary complication or human servility being required. But people were not coming to potluck dinners to see the wizards of the computer revolution: they were there because they were interested in computers. It would not take many hours before the hackers slipped away to the clattering terminals, leaving the activists engaged in heated conversation about this development or that. Glowing in the rapid progress of the great computer dream, he would be at the back of the room, moving with the climactic iterations of Greek folk dance, whether there was music or whether there was not. In that charged atmosphere of messianic purpose, the Community Memory people unreservedly threw themselves into bringing their project on-line. Efrem Lipkin revised a large program that would be the basic interface with the users, and Lee set about fixing a Model 33 teletype donated by the Tymshare Company. The idea was for Lee to eventually develop a new kind of terminal to keep the project going, and he was already beginning to hatch ideas for that hardware project. They envisioned people making hard connections, for things like jobs, places to live, rides, and barter. It was to shepherd the ignorant flock into a grazing meadow fertilized by the benevolent Hacker Ethic, shielded from the stifling influence of bureaucracy. They were curious to try it out, and racked their brains to think of something to put on the system. People found chess partners, study partners, and sex partners for boa constrictors. Doctor Benway, the Naked Lunch character, was "a manipulator and coordinator of symbol systems, an expert on all phases of interrogation, brainwashing, and control. No matter what you wrote, the only fingerprints your message bore were those of your imagination. The fact that non-hackers were getting off on these ideas indicated that the very presence of computers in accessible places might be a spur for social change, a chance to see the possibilities offered by new technology. He was, as she described him, "very shy but capable of functioning in the world of Community Memory. But the terminals kept breaking down, and it became clear that more reliable equipment was essential. But there was no system waiting in the wings, and Community Memory, low in funds and technology, and quickly burning up the store of personal energy of its people, needed something soon. Finally, in 1975, a burned-out group of Community Memory idealists sat down to decide whether to continue the project. But Lee and the others considered it "too risky" to continue the project in its present state. They had too much invested, technically and emotionally, to see the project peter out through a series of frustrated defections and random system crashes. N June 1974, Lee Felsenstein moved into a one-room apartment over a garage in Berkeley. Lee abhorred terminals built to be utterly secure in the face of careless users, black boxes which belch information and are otherwise opaque in their construction. He believed that the people should have a glimpse of what makes the machine go, and the user should be urged to interact in the process. Anything as flexible as computers should inspire people to engage in equally flexible activity. Lee considered the computer itself a model for activism, and hoped the proliferation of computers to people would, in effect, spread the Hacker Ethic throughout society, giving the people power not only over machines but over political oppressors. This inspired Felsenstein to conceive of a tool which would embody the thoughts of Illich, Bucky Fuller, Kari Marx, and Robert Heinlein. Lee dubbed it the Tom Swift Terminal, "in honor of the American folk hero most likely to be found tampering with the equipment. Sitting in the big, wooden, warehouse-like structure that housed Systems Concepts, Lee felt that these guys were not as interested in getting computer technology out to the people as they were in elegant, mind-blowing computer pyrotechnics. He was unconcerned about the high magic they could produce and the exalted pantheon of canonical wizards they revered. He could care less about producing the technological bon mot which Stew was looking for. The twenty miles or so between Palo Alto on the peninsula and San Jose at the lower end of San Francisco Bay had earned the title "Silicon Valley" from the material, made of refined sand, used to make semiconductors. The bosses of these engineers were still pondering the potential uses of the microprocessor. Lee Felsenstein, in any case, was reluctant to take a chance on brand-new technology. His "junk-box" style of engineering precluded using anything but products which he knew would be around for a while. The success of the microchip, and the rapid price-cutting process that occurred after the chips were manufactured in volume (it cost a fortune to design a chip and make a prototype; it cost very little to produce one chip after an assembly line existed to chum them out), resulted in a chip shortage in 1974, and Felsenstein had little confidence that the industry would keep these new microprocessors in sufficient supply for his design. He pictured the users of his terminal treating it the way hackers treat a computer operating system, changing parts and making improvements. So while waiting for clear winners in the microchip race to develop, he took his time, pondering the lessons of Ivan Illich, who favored the design of a tool "that enhances the ability of people to pursue their own goals in their unique way. Felsenstein was only one of hundreds of engineers in the Bay Area who somewhere along the line had shed all pretenses that their interest was solely professional. Soldered into metal boxes, the boards would do strange functions: radio functions, video functions, logic functions. Less important than making these boards perform tasks was the act of making the boards, of creating a system that got something done. But these hackers of hardware would not often confide their objective to outsiders, because, in 1974, the idea of a regular person having a computer in his home was patently absurd. At a counter cluttered with boxes of resistors and switches marked down to pennies, Vinnie the Bear would bargain with the hardware hackers he lovingly referred to as "reclusive cheapskates. Vinnie the Bear, a bearded, big-bellied giant, would pick up the parts you offered for his observations, guess at the possible limits of their uses, wonder if you could pull off a connection with this part or that, and adhere to the legend on the sign above him: "Price Varies as to Attitude of Purchaser. Godbout, a gruff, beefy, still-active pilot who hinted at a past loaded with international espionage and intrigues for government agencies whose names he could not legally utter, would take these parts, throw his own brand name on them, and sell them, often in logic circuitry kits which you could buy by mail order. From his encyclopedic knowledge about what companies were ordering and what they were throwing out, Godbout seemed to know everything going on in the Valley, and as his operation got bigger he supplied more and more parts and kits to eager hardware hackers. But he developed a particularly close relationship with a hardware hacker who had contacted him via the Community Memory terminal before the experiment went into indefinite remission.
A commander ignorant of even one of the variations in the strategic zones is unft to erectile dysfunction treatment massachusetts cheap avana american express command erectile dysfunction at age 50 purchase cheap avana on line. When a superior commander attacks a powerful state erectile dysfunction doctors northern virginia generic 200mg avana with mastercard, it will be impossible for the enemy to erectile dysfunction drugs staxyn avana 50mg on-line concentrate troops and they will be overawed. The adversary’s allies will not be able to join together and existing alliances could be undermined. A powerful commander does not ally with all and sundry, nor fosters the power of other states. The commander keeps his intentions obscured, extends his personal infuence and relies on his ability to overawe the adversary, thereby capturing cities and overthrowing the enemy state. As in the previous chapters, Sun Tzu closes this chapter also with injunctions to commanders in four separate stanzas. In this stanza he explains the nuances of conducting an ofensive against a powerful state. However, he also cautions that there are many factors in war and a commander should be well versed and knowledgeable about all of them before leading the nation into war. This is straightforward, in that, once a nation has been committed to war, the military commanders are the ones to ensure 393 The Art of Air Power victory and, therefore, they must be professional masters. The subtlety is that they must also be part of the decision-making process that commits the nation to war, being able to advise the highest level of government regarding the challenges that the nation may have to face during the course of the war, the probable cost and the probability of victory. This nuanced understanding of the intricacies of war at the strategic level is the unique contribution that military commanders bring to national security planning, making it imperative for military commanders at the highest levels to be strategists and statesmen. When an ofensive is being mounted on a powerful adversary—of equal or maybe even greater stature than one’s own military—Sun Tzu advises that, frst, the fght should be taken to the adversary, which means that the initiative will be with one’s own forces. This would require knowledge of the adversary’s plans and possible manoeuvres, which would also identify their weakest point that can then be targeted. This also indicates the use of surprise and, dependent on political situations, even a pre-emptive attack, which could neutralise the need to cater for the adversary’s preparedness status. If the weight of attack on the identifed weak areas is sufcient to disorientate the adversary it will be possible to overwhelm the force completely. Once when he arranged to see some of his outstanding swordsmen display their skills, he spotted among the gathering a master equestrian by the name of Suwa Bunkuro, and impulsively asked him to take part. Bunkuro responded by saying that he would be pleased to if he could fght on horseback, adding that he could defeat anyone on horseback. Iemitsu was delighted to urge the swordsmen to fght Bunkuro in the style he preferred. Brandishing a sword on a prancing horse wasn’t something many swordsmen were used to, and Bunkuro easily defeated everyone who dared face him on horseback. Though a bystander on this occasion, Munenori at once complied and mounted a horse. As his horse trotted up to Bunkuro’s, Munenori suddenly stopped his horse and slapped the nose of Bunkuro’s horse with his wooden sword. Bunkuro’s horse reared, and while the famed equestrian was trying to restore his balance, Munenori struck him of his horse. Hiroaki Sato (Tr) the Sword and the Mind, 1985 The other action that must be initiated simultaneously is to ensure that the adversary, however powerful they may be, is not allowed to get any support from allies and friendly states. This can be achieved through military intimidation as well as through diplomatic and economic pressures that can be brought to bear at the earliest opportunity. An 394 Strategic Situations isolated adversary, unable to unite its forces, will not be able to present a credible defence making it easier to force their capitulation. A strategically strong nation will be able to gather allies with minimal efort but these alliances should be built well before the confict situation arises. A superior commander relies on the strength that the force has through its unity of purpose rather than on superfcial strength brought about through alliances. At the strategic level of command, a prescient leader will be able to overawe the adversary through planning that is unfathomable and execution that is unstoppable. Here Sun Tzu is reiterating one of his axioms that success in confict always requires a clearly superior leader, even more than alliances. A strongly united force with clear and visionary leadership, executing a strategically sound and fexible operational plan has the ability to defeat all adversaries and make even larger states capitulate. Professional mastery at the strategic level of command is a common requirement for all military commanders. However, when confronting a powerful adversary ofensively, the diferences in the conduct of campaigns in the diferent environments become apparent. The air campaign against a powerful adversary should if possible be launched as a pre emptive strike in order to reduce the capability spread of the adversary as much as possible before it can be brought to bear efectively against one’s own forces. This would obviously depend on the prevailing political circumstances, but must be considered as the frst option. This course of action also is in line with Sun Tzu’s advice to use surprise whenever possible in initiating an ofensive campaign. A successful pre-emptive attack has the potential to become a war-winning action by itself, if the target selection and execution of the attack have both been professionally carried out. Air power is also a potent tool in coercion and show of force activities against potential allies of the adversary to keep them isolated. It can also undermine existing alliances by threatening or actually striking vital points of the allies, thereby providing fexible options to the commander. Further, material assistance to the adversary can be interdicted by air power at places far away from the actual area of operations, thereby ensuring that the confict pattern is not afected. As the aeroplane is the most mobile weapon we possess, it is destined to become the dominant ofensive arm of the future. Fuller 395 The Art of Air Power Air interdiction and ground maneuver must be synchronized so that each complements and reinforces the other. Synchronization is important because it can create a dilemma for the enemy that has no satisfactory answer. His dilemma is this: if he attempts to counter ground maneuver by moving rapidly, he exposes himself to unacceptable losses from air interdiction; yet if he employs measures that are efective at reducing losses caused by air interdiction, he then cannot maneuver fast enough to counter the ground component of the campaign. Bingham The situation being discussed here is one of the more difcult air campaigns that a commander will have to plan and execute. Ofensive against an equal or, worse, larger adversary is always an open-ended issue with no assurance of victory to start with. Terefore, getting the initial manoeuvres right and achieving all mission objectives in the initial phase of the campaign are of paramount importance, since the balance can be tilted either way, depending on the capacity of the adversary to absorb the losses. More than in any other air campaign, an ofensive against a powerful adversary demands the utmost professional skill from the commander. To a certain extent, victory or defeat is dependent on this one person, all other things considered being equal. The acumen to arrive at rapid decisions and to adapt strategic plans to ft the rapidly changing scenario while continuing to retain sufcient fexibility to be dynamic at all times—in planning and execution—is a quality that all successful air commanders will posses. To a great extent the air campaign at its critical moments revolves around the persona of the air commander. The air campaign against a powerful adversary should be launched as a pre-emptive strike Air power is a potent tool in coercion and show of force activities The success of the air campaign is dependent on the professional mastery of the strategic commander 396 Strategic Situations Unifying the Force Grant rewards without regard to Principles. Then, thrust into a perilous Situation, they will survive; Trapped in a desperate Situation, they will live. For it is when a force has fallen into such danger, That they can snatch victory from defeat. A commander must transcend rules when conferring rewards and transcend policy when issuing orders, ensuring that the force is employed as one. Set the tasks for the force without letting them know the commander’s plan; gain advantage by showing them victories but keep them ignorant of dangers. In this way, when the force is confronted by deadly peril, they will survive and when they are plunged into lethal zones they will live. This stanza advises the commander on the diferent methods that can be used to unify the force. The methods suggested by Sun Tzu are particularly applicable to the strategic level of command. He believed that in combat situations the immediate recognition of praiseworthy actions could have a great unifying efect on the whole force.
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