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He probably doesn’t realize how much I appreciated his help; without him muscle relaxant xanax buy 50mg cilostazol mastercard, this book might never have existed spasms jaw muscles order 50mg cilostazol mastercard. Finally muscle relaxant id cheap 100mg cilostazol fast delivery, perhaps I should state my bias about some of the more controversial points of psycholinguistics: I think language processing is massively interactive muscle relaxant overdose buy cheap cilostazol 100mg line, I think connectionist modelling has contributed enormously to our understanding and is the most profitable direction in which to go in the near future, and I think that the study of the neuropsychology of language is fundamental to our understanding. I realize that many will disagree with me, and I have tried to be as fair as possible. I hope that any bias there is in this book will appear to be the consequence of the consideration of evidence rather than of prejudice. Harley How to Use this Book this book is intended to be a stand-alone introduction to the psychology of language. It is my hope that anyone could pick it up and gain a rich understanding of how humans use language. Nevertheless, it would probably be advantageous to have some knowledge of basic cognitive psychology. I have tried to assume that the reader has no knowledge of linguistics, although I hope that most readers will be familiar with such concepts as nouns and verbs. The psychology of language is quite a technical area full of rather daunting terminology. Unfortunately, it is also a topic that most people find extremely difficult to follow. It is impossible to understand the details of connectionism without some mathematical sophistication. I have provided an Appendix that covers the basics of connectionism in more mathematical detail than is generally necessary to understand the main text. However, the general principles of connectionism can probably be appreciated without this extra depth, although it is probably a good idea at least to look at the Appendix. In my opinion and experience, the material in some chapters is more difficult than others. I do not think there is anything much that can be done about this, except to persevere. Sometimes comprehension might be assisted by later material, and sometimes a number of readings might be necessary to comprehend the material fully. Fortunately the study of the psychology of language gives us clues about how to facilitate understanding. It should also be remembered that in some areas researchers do not agree on the conclusions or on what should be the appropriate method to investigate a problem. Therefore it is sometimes difficult to say what the “right answer”, or the correct explanation of a phenomenon, might be. It describes what language is, and provides essential background for describing language. Section B is about the biological basis of language, the relationship of language to other cognitive processes, and language development. Section E is about language production, and also about how language interacts with memory. The section concludes with a brief look at some possible new directions in the psychology of language. Each chapter begins with an introduction outlining what the chapter is about and the main problems faced in each area. Each introduction ends with a summary of what you should know by the end of the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a list of bullet points that give a one-sentence summary of each part of that chapter. This is followed by questions that you can think about, either to test your understanding of the material or to go beyond what is covered, usually with an emphasis on applying the material. If you want to follow up a topic in more detail than is covered in the text (which I think is quite richly referenced, and so the References should be the first place to look), then there are suggestions for further reading at the very end of each chapter. One way of reading this book is to treat it like a novel: start here and go to the end. Section A should certainly be read before the others because it introduces many important terms without which later sections would be very hard going. I have tried to make each chapter as self-contained as possible, so there is no reason why the chapters cannot be read in a different order. In each case you may find you have to refer to the glossary more often than if you just begin at the beginning. Unless you are interested in just a few topics, however, I advise reading the whole book through at least once. Chapter 2 provides some important background on language, telling you how we can describe sounds and the structure of sentences. It looks at the extent to which language depends on the presence and operation of certain biological, cognitive, and social precursors in order to be able to develop normally. We will also discuss whether animals use language, or whether they can be taught to do so. We will examine how language is founded in the brain, and how damage to the brain can lead to distinct types of impairment in language. We will look in detail at the more general role of language, by examining the relation between language and thought. We will also discuss what can be learned from language acquisition in exceptional circumstances, including the effects of linguistic deprivation. Chapter 4 examines how children acquire language, and how language develops throughout childhood. We will then look at what appear to be the simplest or lowest-level processes, and work towards more complex ones. Although these chapters are largely about recognizing words in isolation, in the sense that in most of the experiments we discuss only one word is present at a time, the influence of the context in which they are found is an important consideration, and we will look at this as well. Although the emphasis is on visually presented word recognition, many of the findings described in this chapter are applicable to recognizing spoken words as well. Chapter 7 examines how we read and pronounce words, and looks at disorders of reading (the dyslexias). Chapter 8 looks at the speech system and how we process speech and identify spoken words. Chapter 9 looks at how we make use of word order information in understanding sentences. Chapter 11 examines how we comprehend and represent beyond the sentence level; these are the larger units of discourse or text. In particular, how do we integrate new information with old to create a coherent representationfi In Chapter 12 we consider the process in reverse, and examine language production and its disorders. By this stage you should have an understanding of the processes involved in understand ing language, and these processes must be lookedat in a wider context. In Chapter 13 we will look at the structure of the language system as a whole, and the relation between the parts. Section A Introduction this section describes what the rest of the book is about, discusses some important themes in the psychology of language, and provides a means of describing language. Chapter 1, the Study of Language, looks at the functions of language and how the study of language plays a major role in helping to understand human behaviour. We go back to basics and ask what language is, where it came from, and what it is for, After a brief look at the history and methods of psycholinguistics, the chapter covers some current themes and controversies in modern psycholinguistics, including modularity, innateness, and the usefulness of studies involving people with brain damage. Chapter 2, Describing Language, looks at the building blocks of language—sounds, words, and sentences. The chapter then examines Chomsky’s approaches to syntax and how these have evolved over the years. His partner thinks he is in New York on a business trip, but in fact he has gone to London to play poker with his friend. We need an articulatory apparatus that enables us to make the right sort of sounds. We also need a brain to decide what to say, how to say it, and to make the components of the articulatory apparatus move at just the right time. Finally, we have to be aware of the social setting to produce and understand these messages: we need to be aware of the knowledge and beliefs of other people, and have some idea of how they will interpret our utterances.
At a still earlier period of life sexual excitations directed towards a parent of the opposite sex have not yet met with repression and muscle relaxant for stiff neck order cilostazol us, as we have seen spasms and spasticity buy discount cilostazol, are freely expressed muscle relaxant reversal agents purchase cilostazol online from canada. In this case too it can only be a question of sexual impulses which have not been understood and which have been repudiated ql spasms buy discount cilostazol online. Investigation would probably show a periodicity in the occurrence of the attacks, since an increase in sexual libido can be brought about not only by accidental exciting impressions but also by successive waves of spontaneous developmental processes. I lack a sufficiency of material based upon observation to enable me to confirm this explanation. I cannot resist quoting an amusing instance of the way in which the blinkers of medical mythology can cause an observer to miss an understanding of such cases by a narrow margin. My instance is taken from a thesis on pavor nocturnus by Debacker (1881, 66): A thirteen-year-old boy in delicate health began to be apprehensive and dreamy. His sleep became disturbed and was interrupted almost once a week by severe attacks of anxiety accompanied by hallucinations. When he had found his voice he was clearly heard to say: ‘No, no, not me; I’ve not done anything! There he recovered in the course of eighteen months, and once, when he was fifteen, he confessed: ‘Je n’osais pas l’avouer, mais j’eprouvais continuellement des picotements et des surexcitations aux parties; a la fin, cela m’enervait tant que plusieurs fois j’ai pense me jeter par la fenetre du dortoir. Elements in this complicated whole which are in fact simultaneous can only be represented successively in my description of them, while, in putting forward each point, I must avoid appearing to anticipate the grounds on which it is based: difficulties such as these it is beyond my strength to master. In all this I am paying the penalty for the fact that in my account of dream-psychology I have been unable to follow the historical development of my own views. Though my own line of approach to the subject of dreams was determined by my previous work on the psychology of the neuroses, I had not intended to make use of the latter as a basis of reference in the present work. Nevertheless I am constantly being driven to do so, instead of proceeding, as I should have wished, in the contrary direction and using dreams as a means of approach to the psychology of the neuroses. I am conscious of all the trouble in which my readers are thus involved, but I can see no means of avoiding it. In my dissatisfaction at this state of things, I am glad to pause for a little over another consideration which seems to put a higher value on my efforts. I found myself faced by a topic on which, as has been shown in my first chapter, the opinions of the authorities were characterized by the sharpest contradictions. My treatment of the problems of dreams has found room for the majority of these contradictory views. I have only found it necessary to give a categorical denial of two of them the view that dreaming is a meaningless process and the view that it is a somatic one. Apart from this, I have been able to find a justification for all these mutually contradictory opinions at one point or other of my complicated thesis and to show that they had lighted upon some portion of the truth. The Interpretation Of Dreams 1016 the view that dreams carry on the occupations and interests of waking life has been entirely confirmed by the discovery of the concealed dream-thoughts. These are only concerned with what seems important to us and interests us greatly. But we have also found reason for accepting the contrary view, that dreams pick up indifferent refuse left over from the previous day and that they cannot get control of any major day time interest until it has been to some extent withdrawn from waking activity. We have found that this holds good of the dream’s content, which gives expression to the dream-thoughts in a form modified by distortion. For reasons connected with the mechanism of association, as we have seen, the dream-process finds it easier to get control of recent or indifferent ideational material which has not yet been requisitioned by waking thought-activity; and for reasons of censorship it transfers psychical intensity from what is important but objectionable on to what is indifferent. The fact that dreams are hypermnesic and have access to material from childhood has become one of the corner-stones of our teaching. Our theory of dreams regards wishes originating in infancy as the indispensable motive force for the formation of dreams. It has naturally not occurred to us to throw any doubt on the significance, which has been experimentally demonstrated, of external sensory stimuli during sleep; but we have shown that such material stands in the same relation to the dream-wish as do the residues of thought left over from day time activity. Nor have we seen any reason to dispute the view that dreams interpret objective sensory stimuli just as illusions do; but we have found the motive which provides the reason for that interpretation, a reason which has been left unspecified by other writers. Interpretation is carried out in such a way that the object perceived shall not interrupt sleep and shall be usable for purposes of wish-fulfilment. As regards subjective states of excitation in the sense organs during sleep, the occurrence of which seems to have been proved by Trumbull Ladd, it is true that we have not accepted them as a particular source of dreams; but we have been able to explain them as resulting from the regressive revival of memories that are in operation behind the dream. The Interpretation Of Dreams 1017 Internal organic sensations, which have commonly been taken as a cardinal point in explanations of dreaming, have retained a place, though a humbler one, in our theory. Such sensations sensations of falling, for instance, or floating, or being inhibited provide a material which is accessible at any time and of which the dream-work makes use, whenever it has need of it, for expressing the dream-thoughts. The view that the dream-process is a rapid or instantaneous one is in our opinion correct as regards the perception by consciousness of the preconstructed dream-content; it seems probable that the preceding portions of the dream-process run a slow and fluctuating course. We have been able to contribute towards the solution of the riddle of dreams which contain a great amount of material compressed into the briefest moment of time; we have suggested that it is a question in such cases of getting hold of ready-made structures already present in the mind. The fact that dreams are distorted and mutilated by memory is accepted by us but in our opinion constitutes no obstacle; for it is no more than the last and manifest portion of a distorting activity which has been in operation from the very start of the dream’s formation. As regards the embittered and apparently irreconcilable dispute as to whether the mind sleeps at night or is as much in command of all its faculties as it is by day, we have found that both parties are right but that neither is wholly right. We have found evidence in the dream-thoughts of a highly complex intellectual function, operating with almost the whole resources of the mental apparatus. Nevertheless it cannot be disputed that these dream-thoughts originated during the day, and it is imperative to assume that there is such a thing as a sleeping state of the mind. Thus even the theory of partial sleep has shown its value, though we have found that what characterizes the state of sleep is not the disintegration of mental bonds but the concentration of the psychical system which is in command during the day upon the wish to sleep. The factor of withdrawal from the external world retains its significance in our scheme; it helps, though not as the sole determinant, to make possible the regressive character of representation in dreams. The renunciation of voluntary direction of the flow of ideas cannot be disputed; but this does not deprive mental life of all purpose, for we have seen how, after voluntary purposive ideas have been abandoned, involuntary ones assume command. We have not merely accepted the fact of the looseness of associative connections in dreams, but we have shown that it extends far further than had been suspected; we have found, however, that these loose connections are merely obligatory substitutes for others which are valid and significant. It is quite true that we have described dreams as absurd; but examples have taught us how sensible a dream can be even when it appears to be absurd. The Interpretation Of Dreams 1018 We have no difference of opinion over the functions that are to be assigned to dreams. The view that dreams act as a safety valve to the mind and that, in the words of Robert, all kinds of harmful things are made harmless by being presented in a dream not only does this view coincide exactly with our theory of the double wish-fulfilment brought about by dreams, but the way in which it is phrased is more intelligible to us than to Robert himself. The view that the mind has free play in its functioning in dreams is represented in our theory by the fact of the preconscious activity allowing dreams to take their course. Such phrases as ‘the return of the mind in dreams to an embryonic point of view’ or the words used by Havelock Ellis to describe dreams ‘an archaic world of vast emotions and imperfect thoughts’ strike us as happy anticipations of our own assertions that primitive modes of activity which are suppressed during the day are concerned in the construction of dreams. We have been able to accept entirely as our own what Sully has written: ‘Our dreams are a means of conserving these successive personalities. When asleep we go back to the old ways of looking at things and of feeling about them, to impulses and activities which long ago dominated us’. For us no less than for Delage what has been ‘suppressed’ has become ‘the motive force of dreams. The point is not that dreams create the imagination, but rather that the unconscious activity of the imagination has a large share in the construction of the dream-thoughts. We remain in Scherner’s debt for having indicated the source of the dream-thoughts; but nearly everything that he ascribes to the dream-work is really attributable to the activity of the unconscious during daytime, which is the instigating agent of dreams no less than of neurotic symptoms. We have been obliged to distinguish the ‘dream-work’ as something quite different and with a much narrower connotation. Finally, we have by no means abandoned the relation between dreams and mental disorders, but have established it more firmly on fresh ground. The Interpretation Of Dreams 1019 We have thus been able to find a place in our structure for the most various and contradictory findings of earlier writers, thanks to the novelty of our theory of dreams, which combines them, as it were, into a higher unity. Some of those findings we have put to other uses, but we have wholly rejected only a few. Apart from the many perplexing questions in which we have become involved in making our way into the obscurities of psychology, we seem to be troubled by a fresh contradiction. On the one hand we have supposed that the dream-thoughts arise through entirely normal mental activity; but on the other hand we have discovered a number of quite abnormal processes of thought among the dream-thoughts, which extend into the dream-content, and which we then repeat in the course of our dream-interpretation.
On the other hand muscle relaxer 7767 purchase 50mg cilostazol fast delivery, it threatened to spasms near elbow discount cilostazol 50mg otc contradict completely our theory that disposition arises from developmental inhibition white muscle relaxant h 115 cheap 100mg cilostazol otc, unless we were prepared to spasms crossword clue safe 50mg cilostazol accept the supposition that a person could innately possess more than one weak spot in his libidinal development. I told myself that we had no right to dismiss this latter possibility; but I was greatly interested to arrive at an understanding of the case. When in the course of the analysis this came about, I was forced to see that the situation was quite different from what I had imagined. The obsessional neurosis was not a further reaction to the same trauma which had first provoked the anxiety hysteria; it was a reaction to a second experience, which had completely wiped out the first. Up to the time of her falling ill the patient had been a happy and almost completely satisfied wife. She wanted to have children, from motives based on an infantile fixation of her wishes, and she fell ill when she learned that it was impossible for her to have any by the husband who was the only object of her love. The anxiety hysteria with which she reacted to this frustration corresponded, as she herself soon learned to understand, to the repudiation of phantasies of seduction in which her firmly implanted wish for a child found expression. She now did all she could to prevent her husband from guessing that she had fallen ill owing to the frustration of which he was the cause. But I have had good reason for asserting that everyone possesses in his own unconscious an instrument with which he can interpret the utterances of the unconscious in other people. Her husband understood, without any admission or explanation on her part, what his wife’s anxiety meant; he felt hurt, without showing it, and in his turn reacted neurotically by for the first time failing in sexual intercourse with her. His wife believed that he had become permanently impotent, and produced her first obsessional symptoms on the day before his expected return. The content of her obsessional neurosis was a compulsion for scrupulous washing and cleanliness and extremely energetic protective measures against severe injuries which she thought other people had reason to fear from her that is to say, reaction-formations against her own anal-erotic and sadistic impulses. Her sexual need was obliged to find expression in these shapes after her genital life had lost all its value owing to the impotence of the only man of whom there could be any question for her. This is the starting-point of the small new fragment of theory which I have formulated. It is of course only in appearance that it is based on this one observation; actually it brings together a large number of earlier impressions, though an understanding of them was only made possible by this last experience. I told myself that my schematic picture of the development of the libidinal function called for an extra insertion in it. To begin with, I had only distinguished, first the phase of auto-erotism during which the subject’s component instincts, each on its own account, seek for the satisfaction of their desires in his own body, and then the combination of all the component instincts for the choice of an object, under the primacy of the genitals acting on behalf of reproduction. The analysis of the paraphrenias has, as we know, necessitated the insertion between them of a stage of narcissism, during which the choice of an object has already taken place but that object coincides with the subject’s own ego. And now we see the need for yet another stage to be inserted before the final shape is reached a stage in which the component instincts have already come together for the choice of an object and that object is already something extraneous in contrast to the subject’s own self, but in which the primacy of the genital zones has not yet been established. On the contrary, the component instincts which dominate this pregenital organization of sexual life are the anal- erotic and sadistic ones. The Disposition To Obsessional Neurosis 2627 I am aware that any such hypotheses sound strange at first. It is only by discovering their relations to our former knowledge that they become familiar to us; and in the end it is often their fate to be regarded as minor and long-foreseen innovations. Let us therefore turn with anticipations such as these to a discussion of the ‘pregenital sexual organization’. This follows directly from our hypothesis if we suppose that in that neurosis the component instincts in question have once more taken over the representation of the genital instincts, whose forerunners they were in the process of development. At this point a portion of our case history fits in, which I have so far kept back. The patient’s sexual life began in her earliest childhood with beating-phantasies. After they were suppressed, an unusually long period of latency set in, during which the girl passed through a period of exalted moral growth, without any awakening of female sexual feelings. Her marriage, which took place at an early age, opened a time of normal sexual activity. This period, during which she was a happy wife, continued for a number of years, until her first great frustration brought on the hysterical neurosis. When this was followed by her genital life losing all its value, her sexual life, as I have said, returned to the infantile stage of sadism. It is not difficult to determine the characteristic which distinguishes this case of obsessional neurosis from those more frequent ones which start at an early age and thereafter run a chronic course with exacerbations of a more or less striking kind. In these other cases, once the sexual organization which contains the disposition to obsessional neurosis is established it is never afterwards completely surmounted; in our case it was replaced to begin with by the higher stage of development, and was then re- activated by regression from the latter. The Disposition To Obsessional Neurosis 2628 (b) If we wish to bring our hypothesis into contact with biological lines of thought, we must not forget that the antithesis between male and female, which is introduced by the reproductive function, cannot be present as yet at the stage of pregenital object-choice. We find in its place the antithesis between trends with an active and with a passive aim, an antithesis which later becomes firmly attached to that between the sexes. Activity is supplied by the common instinct of mastery, which we call sadism when we find it in the service of the sexual function; and even in fully developed normal sexual life it has important subsidiary services to perform. The passive trend is fed by anal erotism, whose erotogenic zone corresponds to the old, undifferentiated cloaca. A stressing of this anal erotism in the pregenital stage of organization leaves behind a significant predisposition to homosexuality in men when the next stage of the sexual function, the primacy of the genitals, is reached. The way in which this last phase is erected upon the preceding one and the accompanying remoulding of the libidinal cathexes present analytic research with the most interesting problems. The view may be taken that all the difficulties and complications involved in this can be avoided by denying that there is any pregenital organization of sexual life and by holding that sexual life coincides with the genital and reproductive function and begins with it. It would then be asserted, having regard to the ummistakable findings of analytic research, that the neuroses are compelled by the process of sexual repression to give expression to sexual trends through other, non-sexual instincts, and thus to sexualize the latter by way of compensation. It would place us where we were before psycho-analysis and would mean abandoning the understanding which psycho-analysis has given us of the relations between health, perversion and neurosis. Psycho-analysis stands or falls with the recognition of the sexual component instincts, of the erotogenic zones and of the extension thus made possible of the concept of a ‘sexual function’ in contrast to the narrower ‘genital function’. Moreover the observation of the normal development of children is in itself enough to make us reject any such temptation. The Disposition To Obsessional Neurosis 2629 (c) In the field of the development of character we are bound to meet with the same instinctual forces which we have found at work in the neuroses. But a sharp theoretical distinction between the two is necessitated by the single fact that the failure of repression and the return of the repressed which are peculiar to the mechanism of neurosis are absent in the formation of character. In the latter, repression either does not come into action or smoothly achieves its aim of replacing the repressed by reaction- formations and sublimations. Hence the processes of the formation of character are more obscure and less accessible to analysis than neurotic ones. But it is precisely in the field of character-development that we come across a good analogy with the case we have been describing a confirmation, that is, of the occurrence of the pregenital sadistic anal-erotic sexual organization. It is a well-known fact, and one that has given much ground for complaint, that after women have lost their genital function their character often undergoes a peculiar alteration. They become quarrelsome, vexatious and overbearing, petty and stingy; that is to say, they exhibit typically sadistic and anal-erotic traits which they did not possess earlier, during their period of womanliness. Writers of comedy and satirists have in all ages directed their invectives against the ‘old dragon’ into which the charming girl, the loving wife and the tender mother have been transformed. We can see that this alteration of character corresponds to a regression of sexual life to the pregenital sadistic and anal-erotic stage, in which we have discovered the disposition to obsessional neurosis. It seems, then, to be not only the precursor of the genital phase but often enough its successor as well, its termination after the genitals have fulfilled their function. A comparison between such a change of character and obsessional neurosis is very impressive. But whereas in the former we find complete regression following repression (or suppression) that has occurred smoothly, in the neurosis there are conflict, an effort to prevent regression from occurring, reaction-formations against it and symptom-formations produced by compromises between the two opposing sides, and a splitting of the psychical activities into some that are admissible to consciousness and others that are unconscious. The Disposition To Obsessional Neurosis 2630 (d) Our hypothesis of a pregenital sexual organization is incomplete in two respects. In the first place, it takes no account of the behaviour of other component instincts, in regard to which there is plenty that would repay examination and discussion, and it is content with stressing the striking primacy of sadism and anal erotism. In particular we often gain an impression that the instinct for knowledge can actually take the place of sadism in the mechanism of obsessional neurosis. Indeed it is at bottom a sublimated off-shoot of the instinct of mastery exalted into something intellectual, and its repudiation in the form of doubt plays a large part in the picture of obsessional neurosis. As we know, the developmental disposition to a neurosis is only complete if the phase of the development of the ego at which fixation occurs is taken into account as well as that of the libido. But our hypothesis has only related to the latter, and therefore does not include all the knowledge that we should demand.
Researchers think that bursts from the pons also stimulate nearby oculomotor neurons muscle relaxant use safe cilostazol 100mg, resulting in corre- sponding eye movements (Hobson muscle relaxant review order cilostazol without a prescription, 1995) spasms prostate 50mg cilostazol amex. Left unchecked muscle relaxant and alcohol quality cilostazol 50 mg, they fire sponta- hissed, and otherwise acted out the drama of their dreams. Cortical activation continues to slow through of sleep, after an initial increase in the first 2 hours, respira- stages 3 and 4. Researchers have long thought that memory con- ing rate, with the functional result of slowly releasing their solidates during sleep, because people can remember more hold on the “rational” cortex. In another experiment, a group of Israeli researchers studied memory consolidation and sleep under three dif- ferent conditions. With learning and practice, people can usually Scientists know that slow-wave delta sleep is physically improve their speed in picking out targets. Because scientists have again blessed the study of provement or an actual decrement in performance personal internal conscious processes, the study of dream (Karni, Tanne, Rubenstein, Askenasy, & Sagi, 1994). Francis the aspects of consciousness discussed thus far involve the Crick’s utilitarian housekeeping notion that dreams may mind looking out. Brains and the day’s mental garbage suggests that dreaming is noth- minds are temporarily suspended from bodies. Except for dream researchers have come back to a version of psycho- those who are “lucid” dreamers, dreaming minds wander logical interpretations. Dreamers Freud laid some of the basic groundwork in thinking are detached from their own self-consciousness and more about the psychological function of dreams from which critical selves. After a history of much debate not attribute the same negative sexual and aggressive moti- on the function that dreams may serve, scientists are return- vations to dream images that Freud did, but some of his ing to the premise that dreams have a psychological core. With expan- the physical aspects of a brain temporarily divorced from a sion from recent conceptualizations, researchers may be body. He saw unconscious processes as primitive, guided by internally generated states and active central mo- ancient, and disguised. This conceptualization is fioating or fiying also result from the brain being allowed not unlike recent ideas of explicit versus implicit informa- to “fioat free” from the body, or perhaps in combination tion processing. That which is explicit is available to verbal with, as Hobson suggests, spontaneous stimulation of ori- conscious awareness. However, as in memory processing and entation and position control centers in the brain. Hobson in some disorders such as neglect, a level of processing and notices that when dreamers try to “will” dream movement recognition may exist outside conscious awareness. Is this while trying to escape from a pursuer, their feet and bodies not unlike the unconscious or the subconsciousfi Freud did may become leaden because of the confiicting motor mes- not have the ability to look deep into the brain, but his ideas sages of “voluntarily commanded movement (saying go) that unconscious thoughts emerge from more primitive and the involuntarily clamped muscles (saying stop). Awakening from a particular terrifying dream Perhaps where modern dream interpretive approaches is called a “sleep anxiety attack. This is an fest content, defense mechanisms, and symbols, to uncover interesting area of study in its own right, and work in it the latent meaning. Another ques- of others regarding the meaning of one’s dreams are use- tion fundamental to understanding consciousness is less. Biological functions of the tation in light of personal current life circumstances. After brain could all occur without being brought to waking at- all, the dream was generated by the person dreaming it. But why do some Self-interpretation may involve not only the content, but dreams bubble to the surfacefi Since Freud’s time, researcher Rosalind Cartwright (Cartwright, Lloyd, Knight, the history of dream theory has gone through a cycle from & Trenholme, 1984; Cartwright, Kavits, Eastman, & Freud’s ideas that dreams represented unconscious sexual Wood, 1991). Cartwright found Sleep apnea has become the most common disorder the that dream content and topics differed among subjects, but sleep literature describes and the most common presenting the themes were congruent with the waking response to the problem that sleep disorder centers evaluate (Guilleminault, problem. But resulting from frequent episodes of apnea (cessation of sometimes dreams accompany remarkable changes in wak- airfiow) during sleep. In some people, however, excessive muscle relax- session he reported a dramatic dream he had had. The sleep apnea patient may dream, his whole body was turned grotesquely inside out, actually stop breathing while asleep. This, of course, pre- showing his lung, which was full of tumors and pus, to the sents an immediate crisis for the body, because of the dan- outside world. The apnea finally stops when, in an effort to consciousness” is to keep a dream journal for collecting breathe, the patient arouses, gasping for air. If repeated apnea and awakening occur more feel, taste, or smell things in your dreamsfi As we men- than five times an hour, the patient is diagnosed with tioned earlier, sleep researcher J. Serious cases may show more than 500 apneas per tion of the cortex may very well represent a physiological night, each one lasting more than 10 to 120 seconds and disconnection of aspects of the frontal lobes from other terminating with at least partial arousal. This may help to explain our markedly disrupted sleep characterized by a significant often bizarre logic and lack of self-refiection during absence of the normal progression of sleep stages, danger- dreams. But what of those brain-impaired individuals ously low levels of oxygen to the brain may result. Apnea who have structural damage resulting in waking disinhi- periods usually produce declines in sleep-related blood bitionfi Will we find that their dreams are even more dis- oxyhemoglobin saturation and increases in carbon dioxide. These changes have a profound impact For most people, sleep is a pleasurable event. It is impossible to hold one’s people, however, sleeping can become a medical emer- breath indefinitely, even when a person is sleeping. Essen- gency, as during sleep apnea, or intrude into wakefulness, tially, a refiex controls breathing. At point 3, the patient is fully asleep (notice the relaxation of the chin electromyogram and absence of breathing). More controversial treatments include or the body weight of the patient on the chest compro- surgery to increase the dimensions of the pharynx via uvu- mises respiratory effort. In the second mechanism of sleep completely bypass the upper airway obstruction during apnea, central sleep apnea, disordered breathing is re- sleep (Williams & Karacan, 1978). This may refiect brainstem abnormalities that center of the soft palate, which may relax and sag, ob- manifest only during sleep. However, this treatment is not serious and often associated with severe O2 desaturation. Narcoleptics the cause of sleep apnea is not well understood, al- are affiicted with irresistible daytime “sleep attacks. Generally, can fall asleep while at work, while driving a car, or dur- researchers consider sleep apnea episodes to be caused by a ing a conversation. Such sleep attacks can last from a few complex interaction of physiologic and anatomic factors. Excessive daytime Clinical features that are characteristic of the syndrome in- sleepiness is the primary symptom of narcolepsy, al- clude excessive daytime sleepiness, heart failure, hyperten- though patients are also subject to narcoleptic sleep at- sion, headaches, disturbing snoring, irritability, sleep dis- tacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallu- ruption, and personality changes. Narcolepsy is a central nervous system disorder apnea markedly affects central neurotransmitter function of the region in the brainstem that controls and regulates and cellular metabolism, disrupting the biochemical and sleep and wakefulness. Once the disorder is established, it hemodynamic (pertaining to blood circulation) state of the typically persists for one’s entire life. Symptoms typically begin to appear be- trolyte distribution within the sodium-potassium pump, tween the onset of puberty and age 25. In addition, in patients with sleep apnea, cerebral blood fiow studies Excessive Daytime Sleepiness—Pathologic daytime sleepiness demonstrate abnormally decreased blood fiow, which may is often the first sign to emerge in narcolepsy, typically as- further compromise neuropsychological functioning be- sociated with normal amounts of sleep at night. Many cause of decreased neuronal activity (Guilleminault & narcoleptics are asleep or sleepy during much of the day. Sleep apnea can have serious psychosocial They often report poor concentration and memory. Espe- effects as well, including significant changes in adaptive cially during the afternoon, after a meal, or when watch- functioning (Zillmer, Ware, Rose, & Bond, 1989).
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