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If there Forced diuresis should begin once the fiuid shifts have was dificulty weaning from bypass or significant ventricular stabilized hip pain treatment without surgery order motrin 400mg line, usually within the first two days following surgery treatment for nerve pain in dogs purchase generic motrin from india. The difierential diagnosis for hemodynamic instability in the post-operative heart transplant recipient includes D mtus chronic pain treatment guidelines generic motrin 400 mg. Excess volume can be used to gallbladder pain treatment home remedies buy motrin 600 mg cheap guide fiuid resuscitation or adjust ventilator from crystalloid, colloid or blood transfusions settings. Multisystem organ 424 failure can result, including liver failure from hepatic should be utilized to maintain atrial-ventricular congestion and acute kidney injury. Heart rate can be gradually decreased critical nature of this complication, a multimodal over time to the intrinsic rate. Milrinone and state and require volume resuscitation for dobutamine are inodilators, and will result in hemodynamic instability in the early post-operative decreased systemic vascular resistance. Once volume status has stabilized, Vasopressors, such as norepinephrine or aggressive diuresis is needed to avoid volume vasopressin, may be needed to treat resulting overload, often as early as the first post-operative hypotension. Loop diuretics are first-line therapy; high bolus over the course of several days, even if cardiac doses and/or infusions may be necessary. Inhaled prostacyclins and inhaled nitric Epicardial pacing wires should be used to pace the oxide can be administered to both intubated and transplanted heart at rates between 90-115 beats non-intubated patients to selectively dilate the per minute (bpm) to minimize diastolic time. Phenylephrine fails to cause refiex after heart transplantation and manifests as left, right, bradycardia. Adenosine may made by echocardiographic evidence of ventricular cause an exaggerated response of prolonged failure in the setting of hypotension, low cardiac output asystole. In heart transplantation, the result is postoperative period, due to surgical manipulation or often profound biventricular failure and ischemia. Approximately 24% of after heart transplantation compared with other cardiac patients will experience an episode by the end of surgeries. Demographics and Outcomes treated by intensifying the immunosuppressive regimen with cyclophosphamide to modulate the number of lung transplantations performed yearly in the antibody production, or by plasmapharesis. Patients United States has steadily risen over the last decade, with admitted in acute decompensated heart failure due 1930 performed in 2014. Bilateral lung transplantation is much to rejection may need to be supported with inotropic more common (69%) than single lung. The majority of patients medication or temporary mechanical support until received a transplant for either restrictive lung disease (62%) or ventricular function recovers. Outcomes after lung transplantation are c) Chronic Rejection among the worst for solid organ transplantation; only 58% of Chronic rejection after heart transplantation patients are alive five-year post-transplant. Incision leading cause of late death in heart transplant the incision will depend on the type of surgery performed; a patients. Other lines Patients can usually be weaned from mechanical ventilation will include a Foley catheter, multiple chest tubes, and and extubated within the first 1-2 post-operative days. Medications and Mechanical Support Bronchoscopy should be performed prior to extubation to evaluate the bronchial anastomosis and clear any Medications often include infusions of vasopressors and secretions. Diuretics and inotropes may be used to Ventilator management will depend on the underlying minimize the risk of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In the often and appropriately supplemented, to reduce risk of native lung, the bronchus receives blood fiow from the postoperative atrial fibrillation. Pain management must depend on collateral fiow from the pulmonary Poor pain control in lung transplant recipients may lead to circulation to perfuse the bronchus until splinting and inability/unwillingness to cough, which can revascularization is achieved several weeks after result in poor ventilation, mucous plugging and, in severe transplantation. Aggressive opioid use can also be hypotension, hypovolemia and low cardiac output in detrimental if respiratory drive is reduced and hypercarbia the intraand post-operative periods. Neuraxial analgesia with epidural catheters is often the resulting airway complications are often used as the primary method of pain control; non-opioid compounded by airway infections, ischemiaanalgesic adjuncts may be added as needed. Of note, nonreperfusion injury, and prolonged mechanical steroidal anti-infiammatory drugs should be avoided due to ventilation. Ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes to interaction with immunosuppressive medications. The airway complications by increasing interstitial edema epidural may be placed preoperatively or postoperatively and compromising pulmonary blood fiow. Bronchial dehiscence is a serious complication that occurs in 1-10% of patients, typically within the first Bronchomediastinal fistulae can occur at any location 1-5 weeks after transplantation. Patients present with in the airway and present as bacteremia, mediastinal dyspnea, prolonged mechanical ventilatory abscess, or cavitation. Treatment includes appropriate requirements, lung collapse, persistent air leak, antimicrobial therapy, percutaneous drainage of any pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum or subcutaneous abscesses, and potentially surgical debridement. Presenting symptoms include hemoptysis, air Mild or moderate dehiscence can often be treated with embolus, and sepsis. Patients have been treated with antibiotics and surveillance, whereas more severe bi-lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The allograft is exposed to 3) Bronchial Fistulae not only the fiora of both the donor and the recipient 431 airways, but also that of the external environment. Increased vascular permeability and subsequent Pseudomonas and staphylococcus aureus are the noncardiogenic pulmonary edema result. Hyperacute rejection after lung transplantation manifests as pulmonary edema and allograft 5) Primary Graft Dysfunction dysfunction. Demographics and Outcomes immunotherapy regimen and a pulse of high dose steroids. Other indications are malignancy, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma, alcoholic c) Chronic Rejection cirrhosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Transplant half-life, conditional on oneprogressive and irreversible airfiow obstruction, year survival, is 15 years. Approximately half of lung transplantation infection, new malignancies, and cardiovascular disease. This support should be weaned ofi within the balance may help mitigate complications related to volume first several post-operative hours with volume resuscitation. Electrolyte abnormalities, including hyponatremia, may persist from the Patients may require infusions of one or more vasopressors, pre-operative period. It is important to correct hyponatremia as the pre-operative hemodynamic profile of liver failure, slowly, as a rapid increase in serum sodium could result in including vasoplegia and hyperdynamic cardiac output, osmotic demyelination syndrome. Other causes of hemodynamic marker for poor liver function and should prompt additional instability in the early post-operative period include investigation into the state of the hepatic allograft. Postoperative Complications Doppler ultrasound to evaluate the vasculature of the new 1) Surgical Complications graft, and echocardiogram. Surgical complications Laboratory values, including markers of acid-base status, can be divided into three categories: vascular (arterial and liver function, coagulopathy, and renal function, should be venous), biliary, and other complications. Approximately half of these (23) the majority of biliary complications occur early, patients will require re-transplantation. In the case of portal vein thrombosis, transplantation recipients, occurring in more than oneimmediate operative thrombectomy is indicated, although half of patients in the first post-operative year. Most early causes of infection are similar to 436 those seen in non-transplantation surgeries, and hypoglycemia. This infections, pneumonia, and Clostridium dificileserious complication is seen in 4-6% of patients (23) and associated diarrhea. Suspicion is raised 437 by rising aminotransferase and bilirubin levels, and Table 10. Treatment is Mechanisms of Action, and Side Efiects based on the severity of rejection; options include Category of Drug Drug Mechanism of Action Side efiects optimizing immunosuppression, steroids pulses, T-cell depleting therapy, and re-transplantation. Antimetabolites Mycophenolate Interferes with purine Anemia, leukopenia, patients. Types of Immunosuppression regimens in order to (1) induce immunosuppression to prevent or treat graft rejection and to (2) provide prophylaxis against There are three main types or phases of immunosuppression: common opportunistic infectious organisms to which patients induction therapy, maintenance therapy, and treatment of become susceptible as a result of immunosuppression. Immunosuppression regimens are not standardized summary of these medications, including class, indication, among transplant type or across transplantation centers. The most Common Organism Drug Side Effects Duration of Rx common regimen in heart, lung, and liver transplant recipients 3-6 months, 6-12 contains a steroid, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. CytomegalovirusCytomegalovirus Marrow suppression with Ganciclovir longer course, 4. Treatment of Rejection Valganciclovir possible resistance Treatment of rejection involves drugs specific to the type of PneumocystisPneumocystis TrimethoprimInterstitial 3 months lifelong rejection, either cellular or humoral. Immunosuppressive Drugs Induction immunosuppression is given peri-operatively, with There are several difierent categories of immunosuppressive the intent to induce immunologic tolerance to the graft.
Lupton has served on the Nutrition Study Section at the National Institutes of Health and is associate editor of the Journal of Nutrition and Nutrition and Cancer midsouth pain treatment center oxford ms purchase motrin 600mg with amex. Department of Agriculture (Southern Region) award unifour pain treatment center generic motrin 600mg without a prescription, and was the recipient of the Vice Chancellor’s Award for Research at Texas A&M pain after lletz treatment purchase cheap motrin. Lupton is also the Associate Program Leader for Nutrition and Exercise Physiology for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute neuropathic pain and treatment guidelines purchase motrin 600 mg on line. Her expertise is the effect of dietary fibers on colonic lumenal contents, colonic cell proliferation, signal transduction, and colon carcinogenesis. Her principal research interests are the role of dietary fiber in human nutrition and in the human gastrointestinal tract and nutrient bioavailability. He previously was the dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and a professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio. He is the former director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the Food and Drug Administration. Prior to that, he was a professor of nutritional biochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has in excess of 150 scientific publications in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment. Munro formerly held senior positions at Health and Welfare Canada as director of the Bureau of Chemical Safety and director general of the Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch. He was responsible for research and standard setting activities related to microbial and chemical hazards in food and the nutritional quality of the Canadian food supply. He has contributed significantly to the development of risk assessment procedures in the field of public health, both nationally and internationally, through membership on various committees dealing with the regulatory aspects of risk assessment and risk management of public health hazards. He is a graduate of McGill University in biochemistry and nutrition and holds a Ph. Murphy’s research interests include dietary assessment methodology, development of food composition databases, and nutritional epidemiology. She served as a member of the National Nutrition Monitoring Advisory Council and the 2000 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, and is currently on editorial boards for the Journal of Food Composition and Analysis and Nutrition Today. Murphy is a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the American Public Health Association, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education. She has over 50 publications on dietary assessment methodology and has lectured nationally and internationally on this subject. Nuttall is a member of the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the American Society of Biological Chemists and is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Nutrition. His research interests include diabetes mellitus, control of glycogen metabolism, and glycogen synthase and phosphorylase systems. Previously, he was chair and a professor of the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology at the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Pastides is a consultant to the World Health Organization’s Program in Environmental Health and is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. He was a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow and visiting professor at the University of Athens Medical School in Greece from 1987 to 1988. Pastides has been a principal investigator or coinvestigator on over 30 externally-funded research grants, results of which have been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals. He is the recipient of several prestigious awards such as the Borden Award in Nutrition of the Canadian Society for Nutritional Sciences, the Sandoz Award of the Clinical Research Society of Toronto, the Agnes Higgins Award of the March of Dimes, the Osborne Mendel Award of the American Society for Nutrition Sciences, and the Nutrition Award of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pencharz has served on the grant review boards for the Medical Research Council, the National Institutes of Health, the U. His research expertise is protein, amino acid, and energy metabolism in neonates and young adults, especially in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Luke’s– Roosevelt Hospital Center, and a professor of medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. His research interests are in the hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and food intake regulation. Pi-Sunyer is a past president of the American Diabetes Association, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and the North American Association for the Study of Obesity. Pi-Sunyer is editor-inchief of Obesity Research and associate editor of the International Journal of Obesity. Rand’s general expertise is in statistical modeling and application of statistics to biomedical problems. He was the recipient of several honors and awards and has served on many journal editorial boards. Reeds served as a permanent member of the Nutrition Study Section, National Institutes of Health and the International Review Panel, United Kingdom Agricultural and Food Research Council. Reeds’ research expertise was protein metabolism and amino acid requirements, specifically the regulation of growth and protein deposition by diet and other environmental variables such as stress and infection. Rimm is project director of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Instituteand National Cancer Institute-funded prospective study of diet and chronic disease among men, as well as the principal investigator of a National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse study. Memberships include the Executive Committee of the Epidemiology and Prevention Council of the American Heart Association and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. He has authored over 150 papers with a main research focus on the associations between diet and other lifestyle characteristics and the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. She is also a professor of nutrition in the School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts and a professor of psychiatry and a scientific staff member in the Department of Pediatrics at Tufts University Medical School. Her research focus is infant and adult obesity, infant nutrient requirements, breastfeeding, and nutrition and aging. She chairs national meetings on dietary prevention of obesity and sits on international committees for evaluation of nutritional requirements. He has more than 100 scientific publications on food safety and risk assessment and has lectured nationally and internationally on these subjects. Rodricks is the author of Calculated Risks, a nontechnical introduction to toxicology and risk assessment. Her laboratory is actively involved in research on dietary fiber, phytoestrogens from flax and soy, and whole grains. Slavin has published more than 100 reviewed research articles and has given hundreds of nutrition seminars for professional and lay audiences. She is a science communicator for the Institute of Food Technologists and a member of numerous scientific societies, including the America Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, and the American Association for Cancer Research. She is a frequent source for the media on topics ranging from functional foods to sports nutrition. Her research interests are human nutrition, dietary fiber, nutrient bioavailability, sports nutrition, carbohydrate metabolism, and the role of diet in cancer prevention. He has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition, as program manager of the U. His research interests are dietary fiber and cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. Her specialties within these areas are in social and economic determinates of health and nutrition, population-level indicators of risk, evaluation of public policies in response to food insecurity, and the statistical analysis of dietary intake data at the individual and population levels. Tarasuk has served on several committees and advisory groups including the Nutrition Expert Advisory Group of the Canadian Community Health Survey, the External Advisory Panel for Food Directorate Review of Policies on the Addition of Vitamins and Minerals to Foods, the Expert Scientific Workshop to Evaluate the Integrated National Food and Nutrition Survey, the Advisory Baseline Study Group for the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program, and the Nutrition Expert Group for the National Population Health Survey. Previously, he was Vice President for Corporate Research at Baxter-International and associate dean of the School of Medicine at West Virginia University. He has held professorships in the departments of pharmacology and toxicology in several medical schools including Iowa, Virginia, and West Virginia. He has authored over 12 textbooks and research monographs and has published over 350 scientific articles in the areas of endocrine pharmacology and reproductive toxicology. He is the recipient of several national awards including the Merit Award from the Society of Toxicology, Certificate of Scientific Services from the U. Environmental Protection Agency, and Distinguished Lecturer in Medical Sciences from the American Medical Association. Thomas serves as a specialty editor for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology and is on the editorial board of Food and Chemical Toxicology.
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Gugulipid is the purified standardised extract of crude gum guggul tailbone pain treatment yoga order generic motrin online, and contains the Interactions overview active guggulsterone components Z-guggulsterone and In healthy subjects lower back pain quick treatment discount motrin 600mg free shipping, the absorption of diltiazem and E-guggulsterone neck pain treatment exercise motrin 400mg mastercard, with cembrenoids pain medication for dogs with arthritis buy motrin 600 mg lowest price, myrrhanone and myrpropranolol was modestly reduced by gugulipid. No details were given of Guggul + Diltiazem the gugulipid or propranolol preparations used. Experimental evidence Limited evidence suggests that guggul modestly reduces the No relevant data found. However, the formulation of diltiazem given was not stated and the effects of multiple dosing, or of larger doses of An isolated case suggests that guggul alone can cause diltiazem, is unknown. If statins are also taken, the risk could be potential for an interaction should a patient taking guggul have a additive. Effect of A case of rhabdomyolysis has been reported in a patient, 2weeks gugulipid on bioavailability of diltiazem and propranolol. G the patient was not reported to be taking any other medication known to cause rhabdomyolysis and simvastatin had been stopped one year previously because of an increase in creatine kinase. The possibility that the resin used was adulterated was Guggul + Herbal medicines not investigated. This appears to be the only case report of rhabdomyolysis occurring with a guggul-containing preparation. Guggul is widely used for cholesterol lowering, and the most commonly used conventional drugs for this condition are the statins, which are well recognised, Guggul + Propranolol rarely, to cause rhabdomyolysis. It would be prudent to reinforce of a single 40-mg dose of propranolol by 34% and 43%, this advice if they are known to be taking guggul. In the clinical studies assessed, to their flavonoid content, and the berries may be standardthe daily dose and duration of treatment with hawthorn ised to their procyanidin content. Other flavonoids present preparations ranged from 160 to 1800 mg and from 3 to include quercetin, isoquercetin and their glycosides, and 24 weeks, and the extracts most used contained leaves and rutin. Other studies do not appear to have and oleanolic acid triterpenenoid derivatives. H 247 248 Hawthorn patients, many of whom were taking antihypertensives, the effect Hawthorn + Antidiabetics was small. Hawthorn does not appear to affect the glycaemic control in patients taking conventional antidiabetic drugs. There was no Hawthorn + Digoxin difference between the two groups in measures of glycaemic control (fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamine) at 16weeks. Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial. In Hawthorn + Antihypertensives addition, it is possible that the cardioactive constituents of hawthorn might increase the effect of digoxin on cardiac contractility. It suggests that, despite theoretical concerns that hawthorn may affect treatment with Clinical evidence digoxin, in practice there appears to be no clinically relevant In a randomised study, 80patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom alteration in digoxin levels or effects. Hawthorn + Herbal medicines Importance and management Evidence appears to be limited to this one clinical study. Although hawthorn extract caused a reduction in diastolic blood pressure in No interactions found. The quantity of Interactions overview flavonoids is reduced when honeybush is fermented; howNo interactions with honeybush found. A review of the bioactivity of South African Herbal Teas: Rooibos (Aspalathus Linearis) and Honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia). Phytother Res variety of ailments including digestive problems and skin (2007) 21, 1–16. There is to be able to comment further on the potential for also an oleo-resin fraction composed of bitter acids. Flavonoids present include glycosides of kaempferol and See under flavonoids, page 186, for information on the quercetin, and a series of prenylated flavonoids (including 6individual flavonoids present in hops, and see under prenylnaringenin) and prenylated chalcones. A number of resveratrol, page 335, for the pharmacokinetics of resverahop proanthocyanidins, based on gallocatechin, afzelechin trol. These properties have been demonstrated flavonoids, page 186, and for the interactions of resveratrol, pharmacologically but there is little clinical evidence to see under resveratrol, page 335. Hops also contain a number of compounds with oestrogenic activity such as 6-prenylnaringenin. Metabolism of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol, prenylated flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus products include hops as one of several ingredients rather L. The prenylflavonoid isoxanthohumol from hops, normally produced for their flavour and other charachops (Humulus lupulus L. Bolca S, Possemiers S, Maervoet V, Huybrechts I, Heyerick A, Vervarcke S, Depypere medicinally is usually not stated. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotype: a dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women. Drug Metab Dispos (2006) 34, hops have concerned the metabolism of isoxanthohumol to 1152–9. It has been suggested that hops may alter the effects of cocaine on the central nervous system, but it is not known how this occurs. Experimental evidence Experimental evidence In a study of the interactions of various genotypes of hops, mice In study of the interactions of various genotypes of hops, mice were were given paracetamol 80mg/kg after they had received four given diazepam 3mg/kg after they had received four intraperitoneal intraperitoneal doses of a 0. Evidence appears to be limited to this one study in mice, the clinical relevance of which is unclear. Of more interest is the variability Evidence appears to be limited to this one study in mice, the clinical in the interaction between the different hops genotypes, which relevance of which is unclear. Hops 253 Mechanism Hops + Pentobarbital It has been suggested that hops may alter the effects of phenobarbital on the central nervous system, but it is not known how this occurs. The interaction between hops and pentobarbital is based on experimental evidence only. It is difficult to extrapolate In a study of the interactions of various genotypes of hops, mice these findings to humans, but there appears to be no good reason to were given pentobarbital 40mg/kg after they had received four avoid concurrent use, although patients should be aware that there is intraperitoneal doses of 0. Three hops a possibility that they may be more or less sedated than with either genotypes were used: Aroma, Magnum and wild hops. Of more interest is the variability in the interaction found that the hops extracts suppressed the hypnotic effects of between the different hops genotypes, which suggests that the exact pentobarbital (measured by a decrease in the sleeping time of the source of the hops used in any preparation is likely to be of mice). Interaction of alcoholic extracts of hops with pentobarbital and diazepam in mice. Constituents Horse chestnut seeds contain more than 30 saponins, a complex mixture known as ‘aescin’ or ‘escin’ (to which it may be standardised), based on the aglycones protoescigenin Interactions overview and barringtogenol-C. Some have suggested that as aesculin (esculin) and fraxin) do not possess the minimum horse chestnut may interact with anticoagulants, presumably structural requirements for anticoagulant activity. They are usually applied flavonoids present in horse chestnut, see under flavonoids, as topical preparations, particularly gel formulations, but a page 186. No specific recommendations can be made on the Horse chestnut + Digoxin basis of this single in vitro study. Nevertheless, the authors predicted that inhibitory levels might easily be reached in the small intestine with usual therapeutic doses of horse chestnut. Horsetail is used mainly as an astringent, haemostatic and the related species Equisetum hyemale L. There is of horsetail should contain no more than 5% of other little pharmacological, and no clinical, evidence to support Equisetum species. It Interactions overview also contains flavonoids such as apigenin, kaempferol, An isolated case of lithium toxicity has been reported in a luteolin and quercetin and their derivatives, and may be patient who took a herbal diuretic containing horsetail standardised to the total flavonoid content expressed as among other ingredients, see under Parsley + Lithium, isoquercitroside. Many of their biological effects, widely available as additives in dietary supplements as well as with the flavonoids, appear to be related to their ability to as the herbs or foods that they were originally derived from. The levels of the isoflavone in the particular herb they can also act as oestrogen antagonists by preventing the can vary a great deal between specimens, related species, more potent natural compounds, such as estriol, from extracts and brands, and it is important to take this into binding to receptor sites. In some cases the activities are account when viewing the interactions described below. Isoflavones also inhibit the synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in oestrogen and testosterone Types, sources and related compounds metabolism, such as aromatase. Isoflavones are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds that Because of their oestrogenic effects, isoflavone suppleare a distinct group of flavonoids, page 186. They can exert ments have been investigated for treating menopausal oestrogen-like effects, and therefore belong to the family of symptoms such as hot flushes (hot flashes)1,2 and for ‘phytoestrogens’.
Meeting the 60 minute/day physical activity recommendation pacific pain treatment center victoria bc purchase generic motrin on-line, however arizona pain treatment center mcdowell motrin 400mg otc, offers additional benefits in reducing risk of chronic diseases arizona pain treatment center gilbert generic motrin 400mg free shipping, for example davis pain treatment center statesville nc buy motrin 400 mg visa, by favorably altering blood lipid profiles, changing body composition by decreasing body fat and increasing muscle mass, or both (Eliakim et al. For instance, in a study of Harvard alumni, mortality rates for men walking on average less than 9 miles each week were 15 percent higher than in men walking more than 9 miles a week (Paffenbarger et al. Moreover, in the same study, men who took up vigorous sports activities lowered their risk of death by 23 percent compared to those who remained sedentary (Paffenbarger et al. Similar favorable effects were observed in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study as men in the lowest quintile of fitness who improved their fitness to a moderate level, reduced mortality risk by 44 percent, an extent comparable to that achieved by smoking cessation (Blair et al. Results from observational and experimental studies of humans and laboratory animals provide biologically plausible insights into the benefits of regular physical activity on the delayed progression of several chronic diseases. The interrelationships between physical activity and cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and skeletal health are detailed in Chapter 3. Table 12-9 shows seven prospective studies that associated varying ranges of leisure time energy expenditure (kcal/day or kcal/week) with the risk of chronic diseases and/or associated mortality. Assuming an average of 150 kcal expended per 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (Leon et al. The required amount of physical activity depended on the endpoint being evaluated. The minimum amount of physical activity that provided a health benefit ranged from 15 to 60 minutes/day. The amount of physical activity that provided the lowest risk of morbidity and/or mortality was 60 to greater than 90 minutes/day. This recommendation is also consistent with Canada’s “Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Living” (Health Canada, 1998), and the World Health Organization technical report on obesity (2000). Specifically, recommendation number 3 in Chapter 2 of the Surgeon General’s report states: “Recommendations from experts agree that for better health, physical activity should be performed regularly. The most recent recommendations advise people of all ages to include a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity (such as brisk walking) on most, if not all, days of the week. It is also acknowledged that for most people, greater health benefits can be obtained by engaging in physical activity of more vigorous intensity or of longer duration. Moreover, they showed that more vigorous exercise was associated with an increased degree of protection. Conversely, physical inactivity, noted by prolonged sitting, was shown to be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Similarly, reporting on treadmill evaluations of over 6,000 men studied over a 6-year period, Myers and coworkers (2002) concluded that “exercise capacity is a more powerful predictor of mortality among men than other established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The vast majority of review articles have concluded that acute or chronic aerobic exercise is related to favorable changes in anxiety, depression, stress reactivity, positive mood, self-esteem, and cognitive functioning (Anthony, 1991; Craft and Landers, 1998; Landers and Arent, 2001; Mutrie, 2000; North et al. Although one reviewer (Mutrie, 2000) has argued for a causal relationship between exercise and the reduction of clinical depression, others suggest that there are not enough clinical trial studies to support a causal interpretation (Landers and Arent, 2001). Examination of the metaanalyses indicates that the overall magnitude of the effect of exercise on anxiety, depression, stress reactivity, and cognitive functioning ranges from small to moderate, but in all cases, these effects are statistically significant (Landers and Arent, 2001). These results are encouraging, but there is still much to learn before the relationship between physical activity and mental health can be fully understood. Recent reviews on endorphins (Hoffman, 1997), serotonin (Chaouloff, 1997), and norepinephrine (Dishman, 1997) have provided experimental evidence for potential mechanisms by which exercise can produce calming effects and mood enhancements. In general, Vo2max is related to body muscle mass and is a relatively constant value for a given individual but it can be altered by various factors, particularly aerobic training, which will induce a change of 10 to 20 percent. Thus, on an absolute basis, bigger individuals tend to have a larger Vo2max (measured in liters of O2 consumed/minute) than do smaller individuals. Hence, for purposes of comparison, Vo2max is frequently considered in terms of mL/kg/min. However, a heart disease patient of the same body size might be capable of only a Vo2max of 0. Lipid is the main energy source in muscle and at the whole-body level during rest and mild intensity activity (Brooks and Mercier, 1994). As intensity increases, a shift from the predominant use of lipid to carbohydrate occurs. Figure 12-7 describes this crossover concept and, as can be seen in the figure, the relative use of fat is greatest at relatively low exercise intensities, particularly when individuals are fasting. Training slightly increases the relative use of fat as the energy source during low to moderate exercise intensities, particularly in the fasted state. In regard to the amount of fat oxidized, it must be considered that the energy output for a given percent of Vo2max is proportionally higher (in this case 50 percent) in trained rather than in untrained cyclists. However, at relatively high power outputs, substrate use crosses over to predominant use of carbohydrate energy sources regardless of training state or recent carbohydrate nutrition. To be used for energy generation, protein must first be degraded to amino acids before the carbon-hydrogen-oxygen skeleton can be used as an energy source through the pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, while the amino acid nitrogen is transferred and eliminated, primarily in the form of urea. The rate at which amino acids contribute to energy generation is fairly constant and does not increase nearly as much as glucose and fatty acid oxidation during periods of physical exertion. Indeed, using amino acids as a major energy source would be wasteful, since protein is the most limited energy yielding nutrient. Beyond the overriding effect of relative exercise intensity, other factors such as exercise duration, gender, training status, and dietary history play important, but secondary, roles in determining the pattern of substrate utilization (Brooks et al. Therefore, the same general relationships among relative exercise intensity, duration, and pattern of substrate utilization hold for most persons, including endurance athletes. Intensity of Physical Activity Oxidation of lipid provides most of the energy (~ 60 percent) for noncontracting skeletal muscle and overall for the body at rest in people who have not eaten for 10 to 12 hours. During mild exercise, the use of lipid increases, but if the level of effort increases, carbohydrate energy sources are used to a relatively greater extent (Figure 12-7). For exercises intensities greater than 50 percent of Vo2max, the oxidation of free fatty acids declines in muscle, both as a percentage of total energy as well as on an absolute basis. In other words, there is crossover from prevalence of lipid oxidation at rest and during mild exercise to predominance of carbohydrate energy sources during moderate and greater efforts. The main carbohydrate energy source is muscle glycogen, and this is supplemented to some extent by glucose and lactate—glucose mobilized from the liver and lactate produced by muscle glycogen breakdown. If exercise persists beyond 60 to 90 minutes, lipid use will rise as carbohydrate fuel sources become depleted. In this case, the intensity of exercise must drop because of the depletion of muscle glycogen, decreasing levels of blood glucose, and other fatiguing consequences of the effort (Graham and Adamo, 1999). Dietary carbohydrate is relatively rapidly assimilated compared to fat and protein, thus raising blood glucose and insulin levels. The increments in blood glucose and insulin in response to carbohydrate intake are less in trained than in untrained individuals (Dela et al. Hence, as shown in Figure 12-7 for fed individuals, crossover to predominant carbohydrate oxidation occurs already during mild (22% Vo2max) exercise, even in trained individuals, if they have recently consumed carbohydrates. Duration of Physical Activity Within seconds after initiation of even mild exercise, muscle glycogen stores are mobilized to provide energy for muscle work. Depending on the person, the change from fat to carbohydrate dependence occurs at different levels of exertion. When labored breathing accompanies exercise, crossover to carbohydrate dependence has generally occurred. In most cases, relationships between activity duration and intensity will be inversely related—harder intensity physical activities will necessarily be of less duration than easier ones. Extreme effort is made possible in part by the use of preformed high-energy bonds in the form of creatinephosphate, in addition to energy generation by glycogen and glucose catabolism, with very little use of fat, leading to fatigue within seconds or minutes. In contrast, activities of mild to moderate intensity, performed over periods of hours, can result in large increments of energy expenditure with a substantial contribution coming from lipid stores (Brooks et al. Therefore, in order to use physical activity to enhance body fat utilization, sustained activity that causes substantial increases in energy expenditure is more important than the peak rate of substrate oxidation. Even in highly fit athletes, glycogen reserves will become largely depleted after maintaining high rates of exertion for several hours, so that increasing amounts of lipid will be oxidized. As a result of such physical activity, increased lipid oxidation will also take place during recovery from exercise (Chad and Quigley, 1991; Kiens and Richter, 1998). Gender In general, metabolic responses of women and men are similar, but women oxidize more lipid than men during exercise and when performing a task at a given level of intensity (Friedlander et al.
Because it is uncertain if tetanus toxin can be absorbed through mucous membranes pain management for dying dog cheap 600mg motrin amex, the hazards associated with aerosols and droplets remain unclear pain tmj treatment purchase motrin 400mg free shipping. While the risk of laboratory-associated tetanus is low pain management treatment goals purchase cheap motrin on-line, the administration of an adult diphtheria-tetanus toxoid at 10-year intervals further reduces the risk to back pain treatment kolkata purchase motrin from india laboratory and animal care personnel of toxin exposures and wound 62 contamination, and is therefore highly recommended. Agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriae Cornebacterium diphtheriae is a pleomorphic gram-positive rod that is isolated from the nasopharynx and skin of humans. The organism is easily grown in the Agent Summary Statements – Bacterial Agents laboratory on media containing 5% sheep blood. Inhalation, accidental parenteral inoculation, and ingestion are the primary laboratory hazards. Natural Modes of Infection the agent may be present in exudates or secretions of the nose, throat (tonsil), pharynx, larynx, wounds, in blood, and on the skin. Travel to endemic areas or close 67 contact with persons who have returned recently from such areas, increases risk. Transmission usually occurs via direct contact with patients or carriers, and more rarely, with articles contaminated with secretions from infected people. Naturally occurring diphtheria is characterized by the development of grayish-white membranous lesions involving the tonsils, pharynx, larynx, or nasal mucosa. An effective vaccine has been developed for diphtheria and this disease has become a rarity in countries with vaccination programs. While the risk of laboratory-associated diphtheria is low, the administration of an adult diphtheria-tetanus toxoid at 10-year intervals may 67 further reduce the risk of illness to laboratory and animal care personnel. Agent: Francisella tularensis Francisella tularensis is a small gram-negative coccobacillus that is carried in numerous animal species, especially rabbits, and is the causal agent of tularemia (Rabbit Agent Summary Statements – Bacterial Agents fever, Deer fly fever, Ohara disease, or Francis disease) in humans. Type A and Type B strains are highly infectious, requiring only 10-50 organisms to cause disease. The incubation period varies with the virulence of the strain, dose and route of introduction but ranges from 1-14 days with most cases exhibiting symptoms in 3-5 68 days. Occupational Infections Tularemia has been a commonly reported laboratory-associated bacterial 4 infection. Most cases have occurred at facilities involved in tularemia research; however, cases have been reported in diagnostic laboratories as well. Occasional cases were linked to work with naturally or experimentally infected animals or their ectoparasites. Natural Modes of Infection Tick bites, handling or ingesting infectious animal tissues or fluids, ingestion of contaminated water or food and inhalation of infective aerosols are the primary transmission modes in nature. Occasionally infections have occurred from bites or scratches by carnivores with contaminated mouth parts or claws. Direct contact of skin or mucous membranes with infectious materials, accidental parenteral inoculation, ingestion, and exposure to aerosols and infectious droplets has resulted in infection. Infection has been more commonly 69 associated with cultures than with clinical materials and infected animals. Laboratory personnel should be informed of the possibility of tularemia as a differential diagnosis when samples are submitted for diagnostic tests. Agent: Helicobacter species Helicobacters are spiral or curved gram-negative rods isolated from gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tracts of mammals and birds. There are currently 20 recognized species, including at least nine that have been isolated from humans. Since its discovery in 1982, Helicobacter pylori has received increasing attention as an agent of 70 gastritis. Natural Modes of Infection Chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcers are associated with H. Transmission, while incompletely understood, is thought to be by the fecal-oral or oral-oral route. Protocols involving homogenization or vortexing of gastric specimens 76 have been described for the isolation of H. Containment of potential aerosols or droplets should be incorporated in these procedures. Agent: Legionella pneumophila and other Legionella-like Agents Legionella are small, faintly staining gram-negative bacteria. They are obligately aerobic, slow-growing, nonfermentative organisms that have a unique requirement for Lcysteine and iron salts for in vitro growth. Legionellae are readily found in natural 77,78 aquatic bodies and some species (L. There are currently 48 known Legionella species, 20 of which have been associated with human disease. Occupational Infections Although laboratory-associated cases of legionellosis have not been reported in the literature, at least one case, due to presumed aerosol or droplet exposure during 82 animal challenge studies with L. Experimental infections have been produced in guinea pigs, mice, rats, embryonated chicken eggs, and 83 human or animal cell lines. The disease was linked to exposure to a hot water system colonized with Legionella. Natural Modes of Infection Legionella is commonly found in environmental sources, typically in man-made warm water systems. The mode of transmission from these reservoirs is aerosolization, 85 aspiration or direct inoculation into the airway. The spectrum of illness caused by Legionella species ranges from a mild, self-limited flu-like illness (Pontiac fever) to a disseminated and often fatal disease characterized by pneumonia and respiratory failure (Legionnaires disease). Although Agent Summary Statements – Bacterial Agents rare, Legionella has been implicated in cases of sinusitis, cellulitis, pericarditis, and 86 endocarditis. Surgery, especially involving transplantation, has been implicated as a risk factor for nosocomial transmission. A potential hazard may exist for generation of aerosols containing high concentrations of the agent. Agent: Leptospira the genus Leptospira is composed of spiral-shaped bacteria with hooked ends. Leptospires are ubiquitous in nature, either free-living in fresh water or associated with renal infection in animals. These organisms also have been characterized serologically, with more than 200 pathogenic and 60 saprophytic 87 serovars identified as of 2003. These organisms are the cause of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Growth of leptospires in the laboratory requires specialized media and culture techniques, and cases of leptospirosis are usually diagnosed by serology. Occupational Infections Agent Summary Statements – Bacterial Agents Leptospirosis is a well-documented laboratory hazard. Direct and indirect contact with fluids and tissues of experimentally or naturally infected mammals during handling, care, or necropsy are 88-90 potential sources of infection. Animals with chronic renal infection shed large numbers of leptospires in the urine continuously or intermittently, for long periods of time. Natural Modes of Infection Human leptospirosis typically results from direct contact with infected animals, contaminated animal products, or contaminated water sources. Common routes of infection include abrasions, cuts in the skin or via the conjunctiva. Higher rates of infection observed in agricultural workers and other occupations associated with animal contact. Ingestion, accidental parenteral inoculation, and direct and indirect contact of skin or mucous membranes, particularly the conjunctiva, with cultures or infected tissues or body fluids are the primary laboratory hazards. Gloves should be worn to handle and necropsy infected animals and to handle infectious materials and cultures in the laboratory. Agent: Listeria monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic bacillus; 91 that is weakly beta-hemolytic on sheep blood agar and catalase-positive. The organism has been isolated from soil, animal feed (silage) and a wide range of human foods and food processing environments. It may also be isolated from symptomatic/asymptomatic Agent Summary Statements – Bacterial Agents 91,92 animals (particularly ruminants) and humans. This organism is the causative agent of listeriosis, a food-borne disease of humans and animals. Occupational Infections Cutaneous listeriosis, characterized by pustular or papular lesions on the arms and 93 hands, has been described in veterinarians and farmers. Natural Modes of Infection Most human cases of listeriosis result from eating contaminated foods, notably soft cheeses, ready-to-eat meat products (hot dogs, luncheon meats), pate and smoked 95 fish/seafood. Listeriosis can present in healthy adults with symptoms of fever and gastroenteritis, pregnant women and their fetuses, newborns, and persons with impaired immune function are at greatest risk of developing severe infections including sepsis, meningitis, and fetal demise.