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Using the database gastritis symptoms burning sensation misoprostol 100mcg with mastercard, scientists will be able to gastritis virus discount misoprostol 100mcg fast delivery link visible signs of the disorder with the genes that may influence them gastritis recipes order misoprostol cheap online. So far gastritis diet cheap generic misoprostol uk, researchers using this database found that most people with bipolar disorder had:13. Other illnesses at the same time, especially alcohol and/or substance abuse and panic disorders. Scientists continue to study these traits, which may help them find the genes that cause bipolar disorder some day. Studies of identical twins have shown that the twin of a person with bipolar illness does not always develop the disorder. Rather, it is likely that many different genes and a person’s environment are involved. However, scientists do not yet fully understand how these factors interact to cause bipolar disorder. Some imaging studies show how the brains of people with bipolar disorder may differ from the brains of healthy people or people with other mental disorders. Learning more about these differences, along with information gained from genetic studies, helps scientists better understand bipolar disorder. Someday scientists may be able to predict which types of treatment will work most effectively. The first step in getting a proper diagnosis is to talk to a doctor, who may conduct a physical examination, an interview, and lab tests. Bipolar disorder cannot currently be identified through a blood test or a brain scan, but these tests can help rule out other contributing factors, such as a stroke or brain tumor. If the problems are not caused by other illnesses, the doctor may conduct a mental health evaluation. The doctor may also provide a referral to a trained mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist, who is experienced in diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder. The doctor or mental health professional should conduct a complete diagnostic evaluation. He or she should discuss any family history of bipolar disorder or other mental illnesses and get a complete history of symptoms. The doctor or mental health professionals should also talk to the person’s close relatives or spouse and note how they describe the person’s symptoms and family medical history. Unlike people with bipolar disorder, people who have unipolar depression do not experience mania. Whenever possible, previous records and input from family and friends should also be included in the medical history. But proper treatment helps most people with bipolar disorder gain better control of their mood swings and related symptoms. Because bipolar disorder is a lifelong and recurrent illness, people with the disor der need long-term treatment to maintain control of bipolar symptoms. An effective maintenance treatment plan includes medication and psychotherapy for preventing relapse and reducing symptom severity. In some states, clinical psychologists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and advanced psychiatric nurse special ists can also prescribe medications. Several different medica tions may need to be tried before the best course of treatment is found. Keeping a chart of daily mood symptoms, treatments, sleep patterns, and life events can help the doctor track and treat the illness most effectively. If a person’s symptoms change or if side effects become serious, the doctor may switch or add medications. Some of the types of medications generally used to treat bipolar disorder are listed on the next page. Mood stabilizing medications are usually the first choice to treat bipolar disorder. In general, people with bipolar disorder continue treatment with mood stabilizers for years. Anticonvulsant medications are usually used to treat seizures, but they also help control moods. Lithium (sometimes known as Eskalith or Lithobid) was the first mood-stabilizing medication approved by the U. It is often very effective in controlling symptoms of mania and preventing the recurrence of manic and depressive episodes. No large studies have shown that these medications are more effective than mood stabilizers. The warning states that their use may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. People taking anticonvulsant medications for bipolar or other illnesses should be closely monitored for new or worsening symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, or any unusual changes in mood or behavior. People taking these medications should not make any changes with out talking to their health care professional. Lithium and Thyroid Function People with bipolar disorder often have thyroid gland problems. Because too much or too little thyroid hormone can lead to mood and energy changes, it is important to have a doctor check thyroid levels carefully. A person with bipolar disorder may need to take thyroid medication, in addition to medications for bipolar disorder, to keep thyroid levels balanced. This condition can cause obesity, excess body hair, disruptions in the menstrual cycle, and other serious symptoms. Atypical antipsychotic medications are sometimes used to treat symptoms of bipolar disorder. Atypical antipsychotic medications are called “atypical” to set them apart from earlier medications, which are called “conventional” or “first-generation” antipsychotics. Olanzapine can be used for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder as well, even when a person does not have psychotic symptoms. However, some studies show that people taking olanzapine may gain weight and have other side effects that can increase their risk for diabetes and heart disease. These side effects are more likely in people taking olanzapine when compared with people prescribed other atypical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is also used for maintenance treatment after a severe or sudden episode. As with olanzapine, aripiprazole also can be injected for urgent treatment of symptoms of manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder. Antidepressant medications are sometimes used to treat symptoms of depression in bipolar disorder. People with bipolar disorder who take antide pressants often take a mood stabilizer too. Doctors usually require this because taking only an antidepressant can increase a person’s risk of switching to mania or hypomania, or of developing rapid cycling symptoms. Some medications are better at treating one type of bipolar symptoms than another. For example, lamotrigine (Lamictal) seems to be helpful in controlling depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder. Before starting a new medication, people with bipolar disorder should talk to their doctor about the possible risks and benefits. The psychiatrist prescribing the medication or phar macist can also answer questions about side effects. Over the last decade, treatments have improved, and some medications now have fewer or more tolerable side effects than earlier treatments. In some cases, side effects may not appear until a person has taken a medication for some time. If the person with bipolar disorder develops any severe side effects from a medi cation, he or she should talk to the doctor who prescribed it as soon as possible. People being treated for bipolar disorder should not stop taking a medication without talking to a doctor first. Suddenly stopping a medication may lead to “rebound,” or worsen ing of bipolar disorder symptoms. Other uncomfortable or potentially dangerous withdrawal effects are also possible.

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Being able to gastritis diet 3 day order misoprostol 100 mcg overnight delivery maintain a tempo—through anticipating the obstructions that the force could encounter—that is unsustainable for the adversary is a war-winning factor gastritis symptoms from alcohol purchase misoprostol from india. In this aspect the success of the employment of air power—to chart a diferent route for the main surface force and avoid adversary concentrations of force gastritis or gastroenteritis cheap misoprostol 200 mcg visa, to gastritis symptoms in elderly best misoprostol 200 mcg use its strike capabilities to remove physical obstructions before the surface forces are afected, to remove virtual barriers by preventing adversary concentrating forces through the shaping of the deep battle, and/or to carry out strategic attacks on adversary’s centres of gravity to reduce their warfghting capabilities in the medium and long term—is critically dependent on the decision-making capabilities of the air commander. This is more so in this situation because the adversary will have the advantage and be able to counter efectively any course of action that is contemplated if they get an indication of it through lax information security procedures. In the employment of air power in contemporary confict, there are two aspects to addressing such a situation. Whether physically or metaphorically surrounded, air power provides the option of either airlifting the surrounded force to safety or air maintaining the surrounded force with material to continue the fght. Tese operations require a great deal of detailed planning that would have to be done at very short notice. Further, in order to succeed in implementing either option, one’s own air forces will need to have a very high level of control of the air. This situation is fraught with danger and success is dependent on the robustness of the air lines of communications and logistics, and is directly impacted by the quality and quantum of air opposition. An additional factor to be considered is the adversary surface forces’ actions against the surrounded force, which will have a salutary efect on the timing and choice of the reinforcing air action. The air commander must have a very clear and strategic understanding of the emerging situation to judge the timing of the operations and the total efort needed for success. At 6 am then next day they halted all civilian road and rail trafc into and out of the city, allegedly because the bridge over the Elbe had become inoperable. This blockade of Berlin was aimed at forcing the Western powers to leave the city. The airlift started from three airfelds, Rhein-Main and Wiesbaden in the American zone and Wunstorf in the British zone. The Allies had also despatched three groups of B-29 heavy bombers to dispersed locations in England as a precaution against Soviet interference and escalation of tensions over Berlin. However, the Soviets did not see any need to apply additional pressure because they were sure of the failure of the airlift, based on the unsuccessful German attempt to sustain by air their 6th Army trapped at Stalingrad during December 1942 and January 1943. The only route into Berlin was by means of three 20 mile wide corridors across the Soviet zone of Berlin and the airspace over the city was shared. On 26 August the Allies had delivered 100 000 tons of supplies and by September the Airlift was transporting 5583 tons of supplies daily. By 31 December 1948 100 000 missions had been fown and nearly 750 000 tons of supplies delivered. The city of Berlin and its inhabitants had been sustained purely through airlifted supplies for nearly a year. Since combat is initiated as a last resort after having exhausted all other options, the commander must be conscious of the fact that failure in this attempt will mean certain defeat in the campaign. Tere would be situations in contemporary confict when one’s own force is outnumbered and may even be isolated because of a number of disparate reasons. While a detailed analysis of the reasons why this situation has been reached is not relevant here, it is necessary to evaluate the best course of action under these circumstances. Air power is perhaps the most suited military power to fght its way out of a deadly situation, because of its inherent speed, responsiveness, lethality and fexibility. Air power is also the best option for the employment of catastrophic force, which may bring even an ascendant adversary to the negotiating table. However, the decision to employ such force should only be taken at the grand strategic level of national security. It is incumbent on air commanders to provide professionally correct and morally strong advice on this issue. When a deadly situation reaches a point of national defeat in war, the employment of air forces will perforce have to change to one that provides the nation with the last option to extricate itself from the situation. This may involve the tolerance of a devastatingly high attrition rate and the acceptance of changes to the rules of engagement. At the strategic level, Sun Tzu’s deadly situation is a war of national survival where, in contemporary euphemistic terms, ‘the gloves are of’ and the force will carry out whatever actions are necessary to ensure the survival of the nation as an entity. It is of utmost importance that the decision to move into this phase in a confict is taken with due diligence and as a collective whole-of-nation approach. The consequences of waging such a war, irrespective of its outcome, are far too 349 The Art of Air Power high for the decision to be considered a purely military matter. The professional mastery and decision-making ability of the commanders will obviously be put to extreme stress under these circumstances. Air power is most suited to deal with a confict situation with limited chances of success Catastrophic force should be applied as a last resort and even then the decision should be made at the highest strategic levels of national leadership A war of national survival needs a collective whole-of-nation response 350 Strategic Situations Execution of Strategy A Warrior Skilled in the execution of Strategy, Makes it impossible— For the opponent’s vanguard and rear to link; For large and small divisions to unite and fight; For crack troops to rescue the inexperienced; And for leaders and troops to protect each other. Commanders skilled in the execution of strategy make it impossible for the enemy to achieve contact and support between the front and the rear of the force, mutual cooperation between small and large groups, coherence in the force that ensures the less capable elements are supported by elite troops, and mutual support between ofcers and soldiers, thus preventing the force from rallying. Commanders skilled in the execution of a strategy will be able to identify the conditions that, when exploited, will fragment the adversary’s forces. First, by cutting of their mutual support by severing the contact between the front and the rear; second, by ensuring that smaller elements in the force are not directly supported by larger groups; third, by denying the opportunity for more capable and elite troops to come to the aid of force elements with lesser capabilities; and fourth, by preventing the ofcers from rallying the force by denying support between ofcers and troops. Tese actions are easier to implement and more efective when applied in the early stages of the confict, thereby speeding up the fragmentation process. The four ways described can be implemented through all levels of the confict and command, and are equally applicable to the strategic as they are to the tactical level. This stanza implicitly expresses the broader concept of retaining the initiative by taking the fght to the adversary and denying them the opportunity to mount a cohesive attack on one’s own positions. Sun Tzu’s injunctions to fragment the adversary opportunistically are as applicable to contemporary air campaigns as they were during his time. At the philosophical level, the need to take the fght to the adversary is essentially an ofensive concept, well suited to the application of air power. By targeting the lines of communications and the logistic supply lines, the adversary’s front-line fghting force can be starved of resources and its capacity to continue the campaign severely hampered. Air power’s capability to carry out deep 351 The Art of Air Power interdiction makes it the ideal force to achieve this under conditions of positive control of the air. Early in the campaign itself, a skilled air commander will, therefore, allocate resources to deny the adversary mutual support between separated forces, to facilitate rapid transfer of one’s own forces and to provide situational awareness for commanders. Essentially, the four methods to fragment the adversary that Sun Tzu advocates, translate to diferent levels of air interdiction—from deep interdiction that will have strategic consequences, to battlefeld interdiction to deny the adversary any opportunity to derive immediate mutual tactical support in the battlespace. Two elements are crucial to the success of this activity—control of the air and the commander’s skill in the judicious application of air power. Interdiction of Chinese Logistics – Korean War In April 1951, the United States Far East Air Forces’ air operation’s emphasis shifted from close air support to interdiction missions. The Chinese logistics system had virtually limitless number of personnel and proved itself to be eminently fexible in opening new supply routes at will. The impossible task of interdicting the supply chain was compounded by many resupply missions being undertaken on foot. Further, the interdiction program was unable to attack the supply dumps and base camps in Manchuria because of political constraints. Although countless missions were fown against roads, railway lines and bridges on the Korean Peninsula, the inability to attack the sources of supply brought about an apparent feeling of the interdiction having only limited efect on the Chinese capacity to fght. Yet there can be no doubt that the interdiction program caused a degree of disruption to the communist system of supply. The communists had to divert thousands of men to repair the continual damage to the railways and roads. The air commander’s skill in applying air power is an intangible and non-quantifable quality and such skills cannot be acquired in the short term. Tese are imbibed over a period of time, through dedicated professional development achieved by focused training and education, overlapped by practical experience sufciently well exercised in realistic conditions. One major element in the holistic skills of the commander is decision-making ability that has to be honed to deliver decision superiority at all times—from the planning stage of a campaign to its successful completion. An adversary facing a skilled air commander will fnd it extremely 352 Strategic Situations difcult to manoeuvre and operate their forces with the freedom required to give them an advantage. The concept of ‘taking the fght to the enemy’ is well suited to air power because of its inherent ofensive nature Deep air interdiction can create strategic efects Decision superiority is a primary requirement for an air commander to be efective in the conduct of the air campaign An opponent, once separated cannot gather; And their unified strategy cannot unfold. Venture to ask: ‘How to confront the opposing leader With his multitudes whole and ready? A skilled commander acts ofensively when it is advantageous to the force and halts when there is nothing to be gained. When confronted by a powerful adversary in good order, seize something that the opponent holds dear so that they become amenable to one’s wishes. Tere are two elements to dividing the adversary—one, to keep an already scattered adversary in that state and the other to look for opportunities to divide a united force by targeting their strategy and confusing them.

The central pacemaker gastritis diet generic misoprostol 200 mcg mastercard, in turn gastritis diet misoprostol 200mcg with visa, entrains a number of other oscillators that regulate particular physiological systems gastritis honey proven 200 mcg misoprostol, and maintains stable phase relations between these oscillators (Rusak 1990) gastritis juicing order misoprostol 200 mcg without a prescription. A similar volume of research has yet to be carried out on entrainment to auditory cues, although recent research on motor performance and metrical perception employ models of multiple, linked, oscillators in the brain (see section 4. Clayton, Sager, and Will: In Time With the Music ultradian biological rhythms, so it is not possible here to do more than cite a couple of examples and draw out some features of ultradian rhythm research that are of interest to ethnomusicologists. Slightly more controversial is the hypothesis that this 90-minute cycle continues throughout the day, in wakefulness as well as in sleep (Kleitman 1963), a pattern known as the Basic Rest-Activity Cycle. An important feature of ultradian biological rhythms is that they are never simple, symmetrical patterns (the same is true, of course of the 24-hour patterns of light and dark). As Sing puts it, "more time is spent in activity than in the rest phase, and its exact period from one day to the next is very variable. Hence, predictability of exact circadian periodicity is not possible one can only give probable periods within a narrow range of values. An important difference may also be observed between circadian and ultradian rhythms: the former, which entrain to the environmental light-dark cycle, are the same for all species, whereas for many ultradian rhythms, period length varies with body mass (an illustration of this is that the heartbeat of a mouse is approximately 20 times faster than that of an elephant, and its maximal life span is roughly 20 times shorter; Gerkema 2002). Of course if one takes into account social interactions, different individuals do mutually entrain their "subjective, physiological rhythms", so the distinction is perhaps more appropriately expressed as that between different modes of entrainment than between the objective and the subjective. The two modes would be (a) asymmetrical entrainment to environmental cues at the circadian level, and (b) symmetrical entrainment to other individuals at the ultradian level. By self-entrainment they mean that in actions by a complex body, a gesture by one part of the body tends to entrain gestures by other parts of the body. For example, arm movements in walking could in principle be independent from leg movements, but in fact they are not. A similar effect is reported for the locking of step and inhalation cycles in jogging (Bramble and Carrier 1983), or between respiration and heartbeat in high performance swimmers (Schäfer et al, cited by Glass 1996:280). The degree and kind of self-entrainment exhibited depends on the individual and the task being carried out. For some of the cases just mentioned, it could be argued that the coupling is due largely to a direct physical link between physical oscillators: legs and arms are mechanically connected via the trunk. However, entrainment does not imply a rigid mechanical coupling between oscillators. System Y seems to be located in the suprachiasmic nuclei (see above), and is usually entrained to environmental circadian rhythms, while System X is located elsewhere and not so entrained. The different rhythms in each system seem to be strongly mutually entrained, while the two clusters entrain each other rather more loosely as well as asymmetrically, with System X influencing System Y more strongly than the converse. Clayton, Sager, and Will: In Time With the Music contrary, with rigid mechanical coupling, entrainment will be lost because the two oscillators lose their independence and form a new, unified system. It has been a longstanding discussion whether or not multiple motor actions in humans are governed by a central clock. Recent research, however, seems to be in favour of a multiple timer theory in which each motor action is controlled by an independent timer (Ivry and Richardson 2002). The multiple timer model that Ivry and Richardson developed is a form of coupled oscillator model. The coordination of 9 motor actions appears to be ensured by a neural gating mechanism that, at the same time, improves temporal stability of the actions involved. Ivry and colleagues have shown this for bimanual coordination as well as for experimental tasks involving repetitive movements of two hands and one foot (this is not unlike keeping time by clapping while tapping a foot). The difficulty people have in temporally uncoupling their limbs suggests that the gating process may reflect a fundamental constraint in human performance. At present, however, this constraint has only been identified in coordinated limb movements. It is not clear whether the same or a similar gating mechanism exists for all types of motor actions, for example between limb movement and speech acts. In any case, the fact that such gating mechanisms would hardly be able to constrain entrainment between actions located in different bodies justifies us in distinguishing between self entrainment (within one body) and interpersonal entrainment. They report the results of some experiments in which they test the relation between onsets of repeated phrases and the timing of stressed syllables within these phrases under various repetition rates. They suggest that ordinary human speech exhibits self-entrainment more or less whenever given the opportunity to do so, and that self entrainment may be deeply revealing about the way in which time is handled in the nervous system of animals, for many purposes going well beyond the coordination of limbs. Below, in case study 2, we report the analysis of two cases of musical self-entrainment where a musician simultaneously sings and plays a rhythm accompaniment. The motor system is not only responsible for producing a rhythm, but is also involved in the perception of rhythm: this allows us to understand in part why we experience a visceral response to rhythm. While not yet clearly understood, research is ongoing to determine "how the gestural experience of producing a sound in a physical world interacts with its perception" (Risset & Wessel 1999:142 fn 6, citing Cadoz, Lisowski and Florens 1984, 1993). Keil has referred to this phenomenon as ‘kinaesthetic listening,’ where music listeners experienced in performing music "[feel] the melodies in their muscles, [and imagine] what it might be like to play what they are hearing" (Keil 1995:10). Keil’s comments have been corroborated with numerous examples (among them Blacking 1983:57, Sager 2002:198, Sundberg 1999:210). While this phenomenon has broad implications for ethnomusicological research and interpretation, its importance here is to emphasize the significance of entrainment in listening to music, and to suggest that the study of entrainment in listeners is as important as that in performers. The technique of recording electrical activity of the human brain from the scalp originated in 1875 with observations of Richard Caton and was developed into electroencephalography by Hans Berger in the late 1920s. Berger found that the recorded activity can be described in terms of four frequency bands: delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (14-30 10 Hz) waves. Neurons of the human brain, the ‘gray matter’, come in two principal arrangements: layered they form a cortex and in non-layered agglomerations they form a nucleus. A dominance of low-amplitude beta waves (14-30 Hz) was observed in busy and alert states, whereas alpha waves (8 12Hz) with larger amplitudes dominate in a relaxed, inattentive state. The English neurosurgeon Gray Walter was the first to report that at certain ‘entrainment’ frequencies of the external stimulus, his subjects would enter trance like states where they began to experience deep peacefulness, dream-like visions, and other unexpected sensations (Walter 1953). Later it was discovered that not only strobe lights but also rhythmic noises could produce such effects. Although this phenomenon is still not fully understood, it does indicate that external stimuli are able to affect brain states. Some of the factors determining whether two oscillators will entrain, and the different entrainment possibilities, are the following: First, not all oscillators will entrain: it is generally observed that, for instance, the periodicities of autonomous oscillators need to be fairly close to each other for entrainment to happen (see Aschoff 1979: 6). Second, oscillators may entrain more or less strongly and more or less quickly (partially-entrained or transient rhythms are exhibited during the entrainment process: see Chapple 1970). The term entrainment does not only include cases of strict phase and frequency synchronization, and may cover a spectrum from weak to strong coupling. A rhythmic process may adjust towards the frequency or phase of another rhythmic process without attaining absolute synchronisation. Third, we can distinguish two aspects of entrainment that need not necessarily co-occur. One is frequency or tempo entrainment, where the periods of the two oscillators adjust toward a consistent and systematic relationship (see Ancona and Chong 1996). The other is phase entrainment, or phase-locking: where two processes are phase-locked, focal points (such as a foot striking the floor when dancing) occur at the same moment (this is discussed in greater detail section 3. Fourth, the phenomenon of entrainment is further complicated by the fact that oscillators may entrain in states other than exact synchrony. For instance, two entrained oscillators have two possible phase-locked states, namely synchrony and anti-synchrony: a normal human gait exhibits the latter, i. These possibilities can be derived mathematically using the theory of coupled oscillators, and can be observed in natural phenomena: for instance, quadruped gaits closely resemble the natural patterns of four-oscillator systems. Stewart and others deduce from this fact that "The most likely source of this brain stem. The columnar arrangement of neurons in the cerebral cortex facilitates summation of these potentials and their registration at the scalp. If cortical activity is synchronous over a larger area it produces larger potentials. Clayton, Sager, and Will: In Time With the Music concordance between nature and mathematics is in the architecture of the circuits in the nervous system that control locomotion" (Strogatz and Stewart 1996:73). As Bluedorn puts it, then, Entrainment is the process in which the rhythms displayed by two or more phenomena become synchronized, with one of the rhythms often being more powerful or dominant and capturing the rhythm of the other. This does not mean, however, that the rhythmic patterns will coincide or overlap exactly; instead, it means the patterns will maintain a consistent relationship with each other.


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The implementation of an adaptive strategy being ‘fnetuned’ through the fexibility of the force while in confict is a creative and complicated enterprise high protein diet gastritis purchase misoprostol on line. Controlling creativity is the domain of the commander and gastritis diet buy genuine misoprostol, therefore gastritis symptoms pain in back purchase cheap misoprostol online, the success or failure of a strategy—that 220 Adapting to gastritis diet 6 pack misoprostol 100mcg low price Change in turn determines victory or defeat—is dependent on the force having a skilled and sophisticated strategic commander. Sun Tzu has dealt with the topic of this chapter, adaptability, almost as an introduction to the next three chapters that provide detailed injunctions for dealing with a number of specifc situations that arise in confict. In combination, they cover a very large spectrum of possible situations and Sun Tzu gives commanders guidelines to ensure success in each of them. A horse with no bridle is useless, but equally bad is the horse whose reins you pull at every turn, in a vain efort at control. Control comes from almost letting go, holding the reins so lightly that the horse feels no tug but senses the slightest change in tension and responds as you desire. Robert Green the 33 Strategies of War, 2006 Generally in war, the commander Receives the mandate from the sovereign, Then gathers the troops and assembles a Force. The general rule for military operations is that the military leadership receives the order from the civilian leadership and then mobilises the troops and assembles the army, judged to best meet the sovereign’s objectives. This stanza is a repeat of the opening stanza of Chapter 7 and, therefore, a large number of commentators have opined that it has been interpolated here purely to provide a continuity to the treatise because the chapter otherwise goes directly into explaining the strategy to deal with numerous variations. Essentially this states in very bald terms that military forces should be mobilised and employed only on the direct orders of the civilian government. The nuances of this fundamental factor in terms of both contemporary operations and air power in particular have already been examined in the previous chapter and as such their repetition here is considered superfuous. In surrounded situations, resort to stratagem; In desperate situations, do battle. Where paths cross— physically, as in highways and virtually in terms of national objectives—join forces with allies. Do not linger on dangerously isolated positions, use stratagem in enclosed, hemmed-in situations and fght last-ditch battles when in desperate situations. Tere are some routes which must not be followed, some forces that must not be attacked, some cities which must not be besieged, some territory that must not be contested, and some orders of civilian governments which need not be obeyed. Strategic adaptations should be done with respect to the geographical terrain as well as the execution of plans. Although Sun Tzu elaborated on the actions to be taken in fve specifc terrains, the stanza can also be explained at the strategic level of planning. The basic maxim is that the envelope within which all strategies have to be planned and executed is always constrained and determined by one’s position and situation. Analysing the possible variations gives rise to one explanation of strategy—it is a process of leveraging one’s position within the prevailing environment to improve it. The situations discussed by Sun Tzu must not be viewed as restrictive, but indicative of the myriad circumstances that can confront a force and a commander, and are essentially illustrative in nature. Similarly, Sun Tzu’s injunctions of what should not be done are also not exhaustive and by their breadth of considerations—from the purely tactical of the selection of a road, to the grand strategic injunction not to obey an order from the sovereign under certain conditions—he reinforces the concept of retaining adaptability in the execution of a strategy. First is physically inhospitable terrain, which is not conducive to the establishment of camps. Second is open and connected from all sides, making it necessary to attempt the formation of alliances to ensure protection on all sides. Tird is dangerous terrain because it can be isolated from all outside assistance leading to an untenable situation and from which the force should be removed at the earliest. Fourth is surrounded terrain where one should resort to employing strategy in order to avoid the force being hemmed in. Fifth is desperate terrain that will have to be fought over because of the prevailing situation. Here, Sun Tzu is indicating that the physical situation will have a salutary efect on the options available to the commander and is providing examples to amplify the rule. In the second part of the stanza Sun Tzu provides options for the execution of the strategy and illustrative examples of the variables that a commander would encounter in the conduct of a campaign. However, this part of the stanza is very broad in its coverage and emphasises not only the need for adaptability at the operational level but also the independence of the military from the civilian authority at the grand strategic level under certain circumstances. The examples start at the operational and grow to the grand strategic level—avoiding certain roads where perhaps an ambush is likely, avoiding attacking an opposing force during certain times, avoiding laying siege to a town of uncertain tactical or strategic value, avoiding contesting to gain some positions, and avoiding obeying some orders from the civilian authorities. Indo-Pakistan War 1971: Bangladesh Theatre the Indian Army had a mandate to advance fast across the erstwhile East Pakistan and capture the capital Dacca, to obtain the surrender of Pakistani forces in the country in order to minimise casualties and to prevent further atrocities against civilians. However, the large number of rivers and other waterways that crisscross the entire nation, and townships situated in between such surface obstacles made this a difcult task. The terrain and the well-fortifed towns made defeating them and achieving the necessary fast movement towards Dacca almost impossible. The Indian Army resorted to a strategy of bypassing the towns to race towards the capital, to ensure an early capitulation of the entire opposition army. The surrender of the Pakistani forces in East Pakistan was achieved in record time. By not besieging towns like Khulna and Jessore, the possibility of slowing the progress towards Dacca, the tying down of a very large force to capture these towns and the attendant high probability of heavy casualties was completely avoided. Bypassing these towns and smaller cantonments— by using helicopter lift whenever available—was a stroke of strategic genius and is estimated to have shortened the campaign by as much as two weeks. The decision to bypass strategically insignifcant fortifcations was fundamental to the success of the campaign. Consciously disobeying the Government’s instructions is a double-edged sword and a commander must resort to such action only after very careful consideration of its strategic ramifcations. Under normal circumstances such a situation will not arise if the lines of communication between the civilian leadership and the military command are transparent and built on mutual confdence. Only a serious breakdown of trust will crystallise such a situation and, if it does happen, then the moral strength of the commander will be put to extreme test. This is not a palatable situation for any democratic nation and both the civilian as well as the military leadership must tread with extreme caution when mutual trust seems to be eroded. The quality of military commanders and their professional competence will determine the long-term future of the military forces under these circumstances. Such a breakdown will have almost immediate repercussions on the campaign being waged and adversely afect the security of the nation. While the terrain discussed per se does not have a direct impact on air operations, metaphorically it has implications for the actions that need to be taken. In the conduct of air operations, ground base security is critical to the capacity of the force to function efectively. This factor has increased importance in expeditionary operations with the added element of having to obtain basing rights which brings in a political hue to the efcient conduct of the air campaign. In a theatre of operations that is vast, it may not possible for an air force to provide the necessary combat power by itself, emphasising the need for forming alliances and coalitions. Sun Tzu mentions highroads that intersect that in air power terms could be equated to an essential supply route to a faraway theatre of operations, and alliances would then include the provision of forward operating bases rather than merely unifed air forces. Similarly, at the operational level it may be dangerous to linger in enemy territory, especially if control of the air is being contested, and one must use correct tactics to initiate a getaway rather than fght when outnumbered or surrounded. The exception will be circumstances when it will become mandatory to engage in order to obtain and maintain control of the air to ensure the success of other campaign-critical joint operations. This would be the equivalent of Sun Tzu’s ‘desperate situation’, wherein the only option available will be to fght and win. Adaptability in the execution of plans is one of the basic principles of air warfare. The primary requirement for air forces is to ensure that adequate control of the air is maintained during a campaign so that the surface forces are able to conduct their operations without undue interference from the adversary. While absolute air 224 Adapting to Change superiority could be a visionary goal, air forces will have to tailor the requirements to what is achievable within the available force capacity. This in turn will defne what could be dangerous or desperate, requiring adaptability of plans at the strategic level and fexibility in the employment of air assets. Both should be based on critical analysis of the prevailing situation and options available, always counterbalanced with the adversary plans, manoeuvres and operational capacity. Sun Tzu’s examples in the stanza of what should not be done can be very easily extrapolated to air power employment—choosing of the appropriate tactical routing for missions, avoiding direct combat engagement with a numerically larger or more capable force, ensuring that the centres of gravity are correctly identifed and even then not attacking some of them because of the greater negative impact that such attacks could have, and only contesting control of the air to the degree required. Once again, the elements discussed build from the tactical to the strategic with most of the decisions being made at the strategic level of command. Sun Tzu’s advice that some instructions from the civilian authorities should be ignored is fraught with possible difculties.

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