We'll help you grow.
"Order famciclovir online pills, hiv infection and aids-ppt."
By: Neha S. Pandit, PharmD, AAHIVP, BCPS
If the particle has passed through the cornea hiv infection rate botswana purchase famciclovir now, membrane where it accumulates mostly at the periphery however hiv infection in zimbabwe buy famciclovir without prescription, the most mnute scar can always be seen on careful causing the appearance of a golden-brown ring hiv infection eye splash cheap generic famciclovir uk, which examination with the slit-lamp hiv infection ways order famciclovir online pills, but its detection in the sclera resembles the Kayser–Fleischer ring seen in Wilson dismay be much more diffcult or sometimes even impossible. A hole in the iris or an radiating formations like the petals of a fower (sunfower opaque track through the lens is pathognomonic. If retina at the posterior pole where lustrous golden plaques the media are clear, the entire fundus must be similarly refect the light with a metallic sheen. Fortunately, these particles are usually metallic and many—although by no means all—can thus be demonstrated. One of the most useful methods involves the suturing of a metal ring at the limbus or the use of a contact lens which contains a radioactive ring, and taking X-ray photographs in the anteroposterior and lateral axes. The foreign body can then be located in terms of the meridian and the number of millimetres behind the limbus or corneal apex. Foreign bodies that cause chalcosis are usually composed of localize a small foreign body with great accuracy. London: extent of bony, soft tissue and intracranial injuries can also Saunders; 2014. If the foreign body lies upon the iris it can usually be Ultrasonography allows the detection of most foreign picked out by an iris forceps through a suitably placed bodies, as well as associated intraocular conditions such keratome incision. If entangled in this tissue, it is removed as retinal detachment, suprachoroidal haemorrhage and a by performing an iridectomy. If it lies in the angle of the anterior chamber, it is imposA useful method of detection and localization in the sible to grasp it with forceps through an ordinary incision operating theatre is to utilize the alterations in a secondary immediately over it. The incision should be made 3 mm ininduced current produced by a metallic particle in its vicinside the limbus in the quadrant of the cornea lying over the ity. This principle has been incorporated in instruments foreign body, the point of the keratome being directed (locators) in which the searching element is a pointed probe straight at it. The foreign body can then be lifted out with and alterations in the current in the neighbourhood of the toothless forceps to minimize the risk of prolapse of the iris. An aspiration is then performed and the foreign body will probably be evacuated with the lens matter. If a non-magnetizable foreign body lies on the retina, Treatment and if accurate localization has been attained, it may be A foreign body should be removed unless: (i) it is inert and removed directly by intra-vitreal forceps as part of a vitreoprobably sterile; (ii) little damage has been done to vision retinal procedure which includes a complete vitrectomy. Magnetizable foreign bodies are more easily performed to prevent a late retinal detachment. Intraocular foreign bodies are A foreign body retained in the eye has a serious prognooften lightly magnetizable and always small. Intravitreal sis, even if little mechanical damage has been done at the magnets, which can readily be manipulated by hand, are time of injury. If the foreign body is allowed to If the foreign body lies within the lens, it is better to remain and is inert, it may be retained indefnitely without treat such particles as if they were non-magnetic or remove affecting vision, although an iridocyclitis (sometimes apthe lens as a whole. If it is not If a magnetic foreign body is in the vitreous or retina, inert and allowed to remain, the visual prognosis is bad. If an intravitreal magnet or intravitreal forceps are necessary the foreign body has been removed from the anterior chamfor its removal. Extraction is undertaken by the posterior ber, the prognosis is usually good provided the lens was not route together with vitreoretinal surgery, whereby the parinjured. After excising any surrounding owing to the immediate diffculties of its evacuation, the fbrous tissue and vitreous traction bands, areas of retinal subsequent irritant reaction, and the tendency for the develbreaks are treated at the same sitting. Even if the foreign body bodies are removed externally through an overlying scleral has been successfully extracted from the posterior segment incision or internally by retinotomy as part of a vitreoretinal of the globe, a long-term follow-up is essential. The tracks through the vitreous may become flled with fbrous tissue, this is a condition in which serious infammation attacks and as this organizes and contracts, the retina may be the sound eye after injury (including intraocular surgeries) pulled upon and its total detachment destroys vision. Wounds involving the ciliary body and leading and vitreous haemorrhage, bands and membranes can be to its incarceration in the scar, have always been considered removed at the time of initial surgery. Incarceration of the iris or lens capthese cases there is a tendency for the macula to pucker sule are also more likely to set up sympathetic ophthalmitis and for proliferative retinopathy to develop, which than others. Sympathetic ophthalmitis very rarely occurs if adversely affect the quality of post-operative vision. Sympathetic ophthalmia has also been reported of irritation (ciliary injection, tenderness, etc. In sympathetic ophthalmitis, the plastic iridocyclitis difChildren are particularly susceptible, but it occurs at fers clinically in no respect from this form of irido-cyclitis any age. In rare cases it manifests itself as the frst eye (the exciting eye) has taken place, rarely a neuroretinitis or choroiditis. The onset has been reported to occur as early as sensitivity to light and transient indistinctness of near ob9 days after the accident and may be delayed for many jects due to weakness of accommodation. The prodromal months or even years, with 80% occurring within symptoms may occur in intermittent attacks, spread over 3 months of the injury. In other cases, the patient frst seeks advice for photophobia and lacrimation, or defective vision in the uninjured eye (sympathetic irritation). Aetiology In cases which are prone to develop this condition, the frst the aetiology of the condition is unknown but is considered sign may be the presence of keratic precipitates on the back to be an autoimmune, T cell-mediated disease. Uveal pigof the cornea or the presence of retrolenticular fare and ment can act as an allergen and those who suffer from cells, which are noticed at this early stage because they sympathetic diseases show a skin sensitivity to it. When fully developed, all the signs and symptoms Pathology of granulomatous uveitis are present, varying in degree Pathologically, the microscopic features in both the exciting according to the severity of the case. In the earliest vision is always doubtful, but if there is extensive deposistages, examination shows nodular aggregations of lymtion of plastic exudates in the pupillary area it becomes phocytes and plasma cells scattered throughout the uveal extremely grave. The pigment epithelium of the iris and ciliary body anterior chamber and keratic precipitates have a more proliferates to form nodular aggregations (Dalen–Fuchs favourable prognosis, but they may at any moment develop nodules) and the tissues become invaded by lymphocytes into the severe plastic type. The retina is also heavily infltrated, ple yellow–white lesions in the peripheral fundus, Dalen– especially in the neighbourhood of the vessels. Sympathetic stages the infltrate becomes diffuse and giant cells appear; ophthalmitis sometimes takes 2 or more years to run its in fact, the condition is scarcely distinguishable from course. These are merely the signs of reaction to a relaTreatment tively mild form of irritation. Usually penetrating injury, with or without the retention of a foreign it is a plastic iridocyclitis which has been set up by injury body, prophylactic and long-term treatment, including the and has not subsided in the course of 3 or 4 weeks. Instead topical and systemic administration of steroids, may be of quietening down, the ciliary injection remains, there adopted for a time. The chief be directed to the presence or absence of keratic precipicauses which prolong irritation are entanglement of the iris tates on the back of the cornea. Every effort sympathetic ophthalmitis, the exciting eye may have must therefore be made to obviate this. The exciting eye, while showbered that children are more susceptible to the disease than ing evident traces of old iridocyclitis, may still possess adults. In other cases the eye may have shrunk excision of an injured eye unless it has already comcompletely. Chapter | 24 Injuries to the Eye 399 be excised at once as this defnitely has a good effect upon the process in the sympathizing eye if performed early. The treatment of sympathetic iridocyclitis is that of iridocyclitis in general with the proviso that steroid preparations have a more dramatic effect than in most other ocular infammations. At the earliest suggestion of infammation, steroids should be given systemically in large A doses—intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g followed by 100 mg of prednisone orally tapered off slowly. In all cases, 15–20 mg of prednisone should be continued for many months lest relapses follow its cessation, and the eye should be watched over a period of years. Daily doses of oral steroids are employed initially but later it should be possible to change to alternate day steroid therapy. The use of steroids has completely altered the prognosis of this disease if such treatment is commenced early. If, however, B the infammation has taken a frm hold and the uvea is heavily infltrated, the outlook for vision is much less hopeful. Steroid-resistant cases or those with severe corticosteroid-related side-effects require immunosuppressive therapy. Oral cyclosporin A specifcally affects T cell-mediated immuno-infammation and is useful in severe cases of sympathetic ophthalmitis as an adjunct to corticosteroids. When he was 39 years old, his left eye was removed minor trauma can have devastating effects.
Clin Exp thickness and intraocular tension in patients with Rheumatol 1996;14(suppl 15):S59–67 hiv infection and stds discount famciclovir 250mg free shipping. Poikilodermatomyositis Prevalence of increased intraocular pressure in with retina hemorrhages and secondary glaucoma hiv infection natural history buy 250mg famciclovir free shipping. Graves’ disease: evidence of frequent subclinical Acta Ophthalmol 1965;43:669–672 hiv infection rates for tops purchase famciclovir with american express. Reversal of osteogenesis imperfecta: a new autosomal recessive poorly controlled glaucoma on diagnosis and treatsyndrome zinc finger antiviral protein buy 250 mg famciclovir fast delivery. Acta Societatis of surgical and medical management of glaucoma in Ophthalmologicae Japonicae 1997;101:220–226. Blood and cutaneous melanosis and encephalofacial plasma viscosity measurements in patients with angiomatosis. Neovascular bocythemia and central vein occlusion with neovasglaucoma as a complication of the Wyburn-Mason cular glaucoma. Glaucoma in Sturgenotype with ocular involvement: clinical and ultraWeber syndrome. Glaucoma in sive hemorrhage mechanisms in the Sturge-Weber in the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. Ocular Opitz syndrome, Hallermann-Streiff-Francois synfindings in partial trisomy 3q: a case report and drome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Histopathology of ties associated with pericentric inversion of chrothe eye in Cockayne’s syndrome. Ocular maniretardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and optic festations of the Marfan’s syndrome. Ocular anomalies in Trisomy istence of Prader-Willi syndrome, congenital ectro13-15: an analysis of 13 eyes with two new findings. Trans Am ical findings in eyes with lattice corneal dystrophy of Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1955;59:35–38. Am J Ophthalmol versus125 I brachytherapy in the management of uveal 1980;89:651–653. Medical treatment of glaucoma after helium-ion irradiation for uveal glaucoma associated with cicatricial retinopathy of melanoma. Anterior for malignant melanomas of the choroid: with folsegment abnormalities in cicatricial retinopathy of low-up results more than 5 years. Long-term agement of late-onset angle-closure glaucoma results of 125I irradiation of uveal melanoma. Primary familial amyloidosis enucleation after plaque radiotherapy for posterior (ocular manifestations with histopathologic obseruveal melanoma. Secondary glaucoma tive factors for the development of rubeosis followaccompanied with primary familial amyloidosis. Bull Soc Ophthalglaucoma developing after uncomplicated cataract mol Fr 1986;68:13–20. Arch Ophthalmol 1998; angle tissue in glaucomatous eyes: glaucoma sec116:157–162. Am J Ophthalcoma, and femoral avascular necrosis caused by mol 1999;127:230–233. The vast majority of glaucoma is treated with eyedrops, Other drug properties include receptor selectivity, and successful glaucoma management requires a comcorneal penetration, and protein/melanin binding. The selectivity of action compares the potency at different recepconjunctival cul-de-sac is a unique pharmacokinetic envitors. For example, timolol maleate has a similar potency at ronment and provides many challenges to effective topiboth beta1and beta2-adrenoceptors. The principles reviewed here can be applied to is 100 times more potent at the beta1-adrenoceptor than at subsequent chapters dealing with each specific drug class. The physician should also confirm that the patient receives education about the proper instillation of Pharmacokinetics is the study of the rate of processes that medications, and the importance of adhering to the pregovern absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a medication. Finally, with continuing changes in health care management and pharmaceutical developments, these processes in the eye. Blinking the properties of drugs include efficacy, potency, and causes the majority of the drop to spill out onto the cheek therapeutic index. Efficacy measures the magnitude of a while the remaining portion is pumped into the lacrimal drug’s therapeutic action [e. However, the 1 not surprising that only 1 to 7% of an instilled dose pentwo agents are similar in ocular hypotensive efficacy. Therapeutic index is the ratio of drug efficacy to the magnitude of adverse side effects. The stroma is 78% water and is passed most and may explain why timolol remains active long after the treatment is stopped. Because the lipophilic endothelium is only one cell layer thick, it is a much weaker barrier Esterases are common in the eye and are known to than the epithelium. Medication entering the anterior chamber is immediately Although ocular cytochrome p450 levels are highest in diluted as it mixes with aqueous from the anterior and the ciliary epithelium and retinal pigment epithelium, they posterior chambers. Elimination of the drug occurs are still severalfold lower than in tissues such as liver and lung. Medications also may be in the metabolism of drugs taken by oral and intravenous bound to aqueous proteins and melanin in the iris and routes, does not significantly affect the bioavailability of ciliary body. For instance, changes in pH can increase ications, has increased our awareness of the dangers of ocular penetration of topical carbonic anhydrase 21 systemically absorbed eyedrops. By definition, method is both practical and involves no out-of-pocket an isotonic solution has the tonicity of 0. In addition to their solutions, suspensions, ointments, inserts, emulsions, and antimicrobial activity, preservatives may also increase gels. Each formulation also contains inactive ingredients ocular absorption by enhancing corneal penetration and (excipients) that adjust pH, tonicity, and viscosity. For all topical medications, the monidine (Alphagan-P) to help diminish allergic side formulation, along with its additives, can profoundly affect 25a effects. Unfortunately, the presence of these antimicrobial Drug delivery systems are designed to increase ocular agents does not protect all dropper tips from contaminaabsorption in a convenient manner while minimizing local 26 tion. The large variety of drug forms viding multidose convenience without the perceived toxicspeaks eloquently to the difficulty of achieving these goals. This dosage form is probably the least Viscosity Increased corneal contact time expensive and easiest to apply, and generally does not and absorption cause blurred vision. However, aqueous solutions drain Preservatives Antimicrobial; increased corneal rapidly into the lacrimal system, which limits corneal conpenetration; contributes to tact time and ocular penetration. Delivering the same amount of drug in a smaller drop volume Ointment formulations are commonly used for antibican increase the therapeutic index; this has been demonotics and corticosteroids, and they improve ocular 45 strated with phenylephrine. Although blurred vision generally limits smaller drop volumes induce less reflex tearing, reduce patient acceptance of ointments for chronic glaucoma the volume of drug available for systemic absorption, and therapy, this can be minimized by having the patient use decrease waste from spillage. When these medicaSuccessful topical glaucoma therapy depends on proper tions are given as an aqueous solution, factors in the eyedrop administration technique, another link in the conjunctival cul-de-sac, such as temperature, pH, or the treatment adherence chain. Gels have take the medication at the appropriate time but must proved useful in prolonging the duration of action of 30,31 also instill the drop properly. Examples of pilocarpine gel formulations difficult in patients with arthritis, movement disorders, include Piloplex (an aqueous dispersion in a gel of lauryl 32,33 and dementia. In one molecular-weight, cross-linked polymer of acrylic acid), technique, the patient gently pulls down the lower lid and PilaSite (a gel-forming suspension composed of 35 with the index finger of the hand not holding the dropper. One drop is then placed in the inferior cul-de-sac without Timolol has now been formulated in Gelrite, a polytouching the dropper tip to the conjunctiva, lashes, or saccharide gellan gum in which gel formation is triggered skin. An alternative technique uses the thumb and index by the presence of sodium ions in the tears. In chronic finger to create a pouch out of the inferior cul-de-sac treatment, once-daily use of timolol in this gel product is 36 (Fig. Avoiding contamination requires that the equivalent to twice-daily use of timolol in solution. The Ocusert (no longer comthe “dropper hand” on the hand pulling the lid may also mercially available), a membrane ring applied underneath help the patient apply the drop accurately and consisa patient’s eyelid, and provides a continuous delivery of tently. By tilting the head slightly to the left (for important side effects that reduce adherence to pilocarpine the right eye) or to the right (for the left eye), the drop 40 will roll into the eye when the eyelids are opened.
Purchase famciclovir 250mg mastercard. Philippines HIV Prevention in the Big Cities.
In severe Hemolytic and ghost cell glaucoma develop after cases antiviral over the counter medicine buy generic famciclovir online, medical therapy is ineffective and a filtering vitreous hemorrhage hiv infection kinetics purchase famciclovir us. Within 1-3 months Epithelial and fibrous downgrowth causes of vitreous hemorrhage natural antiviral herbs famciclovir 250 mg visa, the red blood cells intractable secondary glaucoma antiviral detox purchase famciclovir 250 mg with amex. Postoperative degenerate into ghost cells when hemoglobin wound dehiscence and delayed wound closure leaks out. The ghost cells are spherical, 4 to 6 facilitate epithelial or fibrous downgrowth in the microns in diameter, hollow in appearance, khaki anterior chamber. Because they are rigid, as gray vascular membrane which invades the they block the trabecular meshwork and produce posterior surface of the cornea, iris and trabecular ghost cell glaucoma. Radical excision of the growth with repair of Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, the wound is recommended but in most cases is given in a dose of 100 mg per kg body weight prognosis remains poor. Some patients may need anterior chamber irrigation, pars plana Scleral buckling with encircling band may cause vitrectomy and filtering surgery to control the angle-closure glaucoma. The injection of air and expansile gases and silicone oil may result in Postoperative Glaucoma angle-closure glaucoma. The glaucoma can be Aphakic and Pseudophakic Glaucomas managed by release of band, removal of expansile gas or silicone oil. Non-responding cases need Postoperative pupillary block may develop due filtering surgery. Pupillary block can be managed misdirection or posterior aqueous diversion by multiple laser iridectomies. The ciliary processes are A persistent postoperative flat anterior chamber rotated anteriorly and may be visualized through often results in synechial closure of the angle of an iridectomy opening. It includes intensive therapy with any delay to prevent corneal endothelial damage. Glaucoma 247 Argon laser photocoagulation of the ciliary processes and anterior vitrectomy combined with anterior chamber reformation are more definitive treatment options. The Glaucoma Associated with Elevated ischemic retina releases a vasoformative substance Episcleral Venous Pressure which induces neovascularization of the anterior segment. It may be raised in retrobulbar tumors, fibrovascular membrane covering the trabecular thyroid ophthalmopathy, superior vena cava meshwork is demonstrated. Recurrent hyphema syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and arterooften complicates the picture venous fistula. Patients are symptom-free or the treatment of neovascular glaucoma is not present with chronic red eye. Glaucoma Associated with It is caused by central retinal vein occlusion, Intraocular Tumors diabetic retinopathy and ocular ischemic syndrome. Sickle cell retinopathy, Eales’ disease, Intraocular tumors like uveal melanomas and longstanding retinal detachment, and intraocular retinoblastoma may cause secondary glaucoma. The rapidly growing tumor may push the lensiris diaphragm forward thus causing angleSteroid Induced Glaucoma closure glaucoma. The Myocilin gene larization of the iris and the angle of the of primary open-angle glaucoma and that conanterior chamber, thus cause neovascular trolling corticosteroid responsiveness are closely glaucoma. Sometimes, the tumor is so situated as to press increased resistance to aqueous outflow in the upon the vortex veins and impede the venous trabecular meshwork. Deposition of mucopolyoutflow from the eye resulting in secondary saccharides in the trabeculum, tightening of the glaucoma. Primary or metastatic tumors of the ciliary humor formation are the probable mechanisms of body may directly invade the angle of the steroid-induced glaucoma. Toxic Glaucoma the theory of reverse pupillary block suggests that iris acts as a valve resulting in higher pressure in Toxic glaucoma may be found in patients of the anterior chamber than the posterior chamber epidemic dropsy and is characterized by headcausing posterior bowing of the iris. Pigment ache, colored halos, normal or deep anterior granules shedding from the iris occurs due to chamber, an open angle of the anterior chamber rubbing of the posterior surface of iris with the and marked elevation of intraocular pressure zonule. The released melanin granules block the associated with generalized edema of the body. The epidemic dropsy glaucoma is non-conGonioscopy may show a pigmentary line along the Schwalbe’s line (Sampaolesi’s line). Argon of sanguinarine, an active alkaloid in the seeds of laser trabeculoplasty and laser iridotomy may Argemone mexicana. Sanguinarine syndrome), nanophthalmos, retinopathy of causes generalized capillary dilatation and prematurity, Fuchs hetrochromic iridocyclitis and increased formation of aqueous humor resulting glaucomatocyclitic crisis. The cells show high mitotic elastic capsule which is a semipermeable memactivity and form new cells which migrate towards brane. The centers of anterior and posterior surfaces are known as anterior pole and posterior pole, respectively. The consistency of the superficial part (cortex) of the lens is softer than the central (nucleus). The lens continues to grow throughout life and relative thickness of the cortex increases with age. The lens fibers develop from the lens epithelial cells the lens capsule is a transparent homogeneous and that continue to divide and get elongated and highly elastic envelope. They are mainly front than behind, the thickness being greater composed of proteins called crystallins. It is (nucleus of the lens), the newer ones occupy a secreted by the lens epithelium. The fibers of embryonic the lens epithelium is a single layer of cubical cells nucleus meet around Y-shaped sutures. The most peripheral part of the lens consists the lens epithelium has the highest metabolic rate of cortex (young lens fibers) and the lens capsule within the lens, it utilizes oxygen and glucose for (See Fig. Each fiber starts anteriorly and ends protein synthesis and transport of electrolytes, posteriorly. Suture lines, formed by the end-to-end carbohydrates and amino acids to the lens fibers. There are more than 2000 Normal lens contains approximately 66% water fibers in an adult lens. In in lens is about 20 mM and potassium about adults, lens is firm, transparent and avascular. The lens has higher levels of potassium the adult lens measures 5 mm anteroposteriorly ions and amino acids and lower levels of sodium and 9 mm equatorially and weighs about 255 mg. The sodium pump inserted onto the anterior and the posterior lens acts by pumping sodium ions out and taking capsule in a continuous fashion. The combination of active There are no blood vessels and nerves in the transport and membrane permeability is known lens. The sodium is pumped across the anterior surface of the lens into the aqueous humor and potassium moves from the aqueous into the lens. This arrangement results in a sodium-potassium gradient across the lens; potassium being higher at the front and sodium being higher at the back of the lens. Normally the intracellular level of calcium in the lens is about 30 mM while the extracellular calcium level is close to 2 mM. Congenital or Punctate, anterior polar, diffusion allows the waste products of the lens developmental posterior polar, central metabolism to leave the lens. As lens is an coronary, membranous avascular structure, it has an overall low metabolic 2. Senile Cortical, posterior rate which is evident by the low rates of consumpsubcapsular, and nuclear tion of oxygen and utilization of glucose. Complicated Uveitis, high myopia, carbohydrate metabolism in the lens occurs by retinitis pigmentosa, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, hexose-monophosphate retinal detachment, shunt and sorbitol pathway. Amino acids and fatty glaucoma, ocular acids are oxidized in the mitochondria of the lens ischemia epithelium via citric acid cycle. Traumatic Concussion injuries, changes in the lens are common and they often penetrating injuries result in the partial or complete loss of trans6. Cataracts vary in degree of density and Rothmund’s syndrome, site and assume various forms. Clinically, cataract Werner’s syndrome may be classified on the basis of morphology or 8. The Diseases of the Lens 253 etiology of many developmental cataracts is to alarm such patients about their lens opacities obscure. Heredity: A strong hereditary predisposition cular cataract wherein the capsule or the subis found in about 25% of all developmental capsular region of the lens is involved, and cataracts. Other infections such as cytomegalic Several forms of developmental cataracts are inclusion disease, toxoplasmosis and syphilis found, the relatively common ones are described can also lead to cataract formation. Toxic agents: Administration of corticosteroids Punctate cataract is very frequent in occurrence or thalidomide during pregnancy has cataracand manifests as multiple, small opaque dots, togenic effect.
Presence of nebula in the pupillary area causes blurring of vision due to hiv infection rates caribbean 250 mg famciclovir with visa irregular astigmatism antiviral gel generic 250 mg famciclovir visa. Diseases of the Cornea 173 the perforation of a sloughing corneal ulcer results in formation of a pseudocornea over the prolapsed iris hiv infection symptoms in hindi buy famciclovir without prescription. The ectasia of pseudocornea with the incarceration of iris tissue is known as anterior staphyloma secondary hiv infection symptoms discount famciclovir 250mg with visa. The intraocular pressure is often raised due to the development of secondary glaucoma. The summit of the staphyloma may get ulcerated and the aqueous humor may leak out. When the corneal opacity covers the pupillary area an optical iridectomy can improve the vision, but the ideal procedure is either excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy or corneal transplantation. The epithelium over It is caused by destruction of less than half the thickness of corneal stroma. Leukomatous corneal opacity: When the opacity is very dense and white, it is called leukoma (Fig. The destruction of more than half the thickness of corneal stroma causes leukomatous opacity. Occasionally the corneal scar is weak and thin and bulges under the normal intraocular pressure, the condition is known as keratectasia. When iris tissue is adherent to the back of a leukoma, it is called as leukoma adherence (Fig. Gold chloride 4% or platinum chloride ted by timely and adequate treatment of predis2% solution is applied for 2 to 3 minutes to posing conditions. A freshly prepared hydrazine corticosteroids, thiotepa or fi-irradiation is hydrate 2% solution is instilled over the cornea to effective. Intractable cases are dealt with peritomy reduce gold chloride to dark brown and platinum or corneal grafting. The eye should be Pigmentation of the Cornea bandaged after application of atropine ointment. A partial anterior staphyloma is managed by Pigmentation of the cornea may be due to proreducing the intraocular pressure and performing longed use of topical drugs, trauma, foreign body, penetrating keratoplasty. Iatrogenic pigmentation of the cornea may occur from prolonged use of silver nitrate. Vascularization of the Cornea Repeated silver nitrate application leads to brownish discoloration of Descemet’s membrane the cornea is an avascular tissue and presence of owing to impregnation of the salt (argyrosis). A retained copper foreign body in the eye may the superficial vascularization of cornea is produce a grayish-green or golden-brown discolocommon in trachoma, superficial corneal ulcers, ration of the peripheral corneal stroma (chalcosis). Blood staining of the cornea can follow massive hyphema either from a contusion injury or an intraocular surgery. The deeper layers of cornea are stained with blood pigment (hemosiderin) and may develop brown or greenish discoloration simulating dislocation of the lens in the anterior chamber. A brown horizontal line (Hudson-Stahli line) in the inferior third of the cornea may be seen on slit-lamp in elderly persons. Philadelphia, Stocker’s line is a golden brown line in the corneal Saunders, 1998. It forms the posterior five-sixths part of the fibrous outer protective tunic of the eyeball. The thickest part is at the posterior pole and the thinnest underneath the insertion of rectus the episcleral tissue comprises fine loose elastic tissue fibers and contains a large number of small muscles. At the entrance of the optic nerve, the sclera is the sclera proper is formed by dense bands of modified into a sieve-like membrane, the lamina parallel and interlacing collagen fibers. The cribrosa, which allows the passage of fasciculi of collagen fiber bundles are arranged in concentric the nerve. The sclera is pierced by two long and circles at the limbus and around the entrance of the ten to twelve short posterior ciliary arteries around optic nerve, elsewhere the arrangement is quite the optic nerve. The anterior ciliary arteries and veins the presence of a large number of branched chromatophores. Histologically, the sclera consists of three However, sclera is opaque due to the hydration and layers from without inwards (Fig. Episcleritis A self-limiting, transient inflammatory involvement of the superficial layers of the sclera is known as episcleritis. The condition may be unilateral (more than 60%) or bilateral, predominantly affecting the young women. The lymphocytic infiltration of episcleral tissue remission of nodule sometimes leaves a transluassociated with edema and congestion of the cent sclera. Clinical features Redness, ocular discomfort or occasional pain, photophobia and lacrimation are Scleritis the usual symptoms. Scleritis is a chronic inflammation of the sclera Nodular Episcleritis proper often associated with systemic diseases. There occurs a pink or purple circumscribed flat Etiology Scleritis is caused by an immunenodule situated 2 to 3 mm away from the limbus, mediated vasculitis that may lead to destruction often on the temporal side (Fig. It occurs in older age group and affects tender, immobile and the overlying conjunctiva females more than males. Scleritis is congestion imparts a bright red or salmon pink frequently associated with connective tissue or color to it. The nodule seldom undergoes suppuautoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid ration or ulceration. Sarcoidosis, Behcet’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, tuberculosis Diffuse Episcleritis and syphilis are also implicated in the etiology of the inflammatory reaction is confined to one or scleritis. Physical, chemical or mechanical injuries two quadrants of the eye in diffuse episcleritis. Sometimes, the nodules may encircle the cornea in an annular fashion, annular scleritis, resulting in a severe damage to the anterior segment of the eye. It is a painful condition with marked reactive edema and loss of vascular pattern of the sclera. It may and serious form of scleritis characterized by occur following trauma by contaminated foreign intractable pain and violent inflammatory body and pterygium excision with mitomycin C reaction in a localized part of the sclera. A suppurative scleritis can threaten may be an area of local infarction owing to the the eye. The inflammation spreads ted without corticosteroid or immunosuppressive to the adjoining areas. The condition leads to anterior uveitis, and may involve the entire anterior sclera Necrotizing Scleritis without causing thinning and subsequent ectasia. The posterior scleritis is a rare type of scleritis However, the typical signs of inflammation such which poses difficulty in diagnosis. It is a rare is often unilateral and causes pain, diplopia and entity characterized by thinning and melting of the diminution of vision. In the presence of limitation sclera and development of holes without any of ocular movements, proptosis, papilledema and evidence of scleritis. The disease is common in exudative detachment of the retina, the disease elderly females usually suffering with severe should be suspected. Trivial trauma may lead to perforation selerokeratitis (37%), scleral thinning (33%), of the globe. Corticosteroid therapy is contraindicated as there is a danger of impending perforation. The Treatment Mild cases of diffuse and nodular ectatic areas should be repaired by scleral grafting. Topical therapy is generally ineffective but prednisolone and cycloplegic eye drops are recommended to prevent uveitis. The use of sub-Tenon depot steroids may cause scleral necrosis, hence is not used. If scleritis is not responding to oral corticosteroids, systemic immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate, cyclophosphamide Fig. It occurs due to weakening of the outer tunic of eye by an inflammatory or degenerative condition.