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The motor function of the sacral nerve roots is allergy shots psoriasis generic clarinex 5 mg line, In the normal patient allergy to chlorine buy cheap clarinex online, the examiner is able to allergy testing kent uk discount 5mg clarinex overnight delivery overcome therefore allergy testing rules cheap clarinex 5mg with amex, usually tested by performing a rectal examina the strength of the evertors only with difficulty. The S2, S3, and S4 nerve reflexes are normally tested: the patellar tendon reflex, roots may be compressed or injured by tumors or frac which primarily involves the L4 nerve root, and the tures of the sacrum, or, more commonly, affected by spinal Achilles tendon reflex, which primarily involves the S1 cord injury at a higher level. The patellar tendon may produce a patellar tendon reflex in patients in whom reflex is usually assessed with the patient seated on the the reaction is otherwise unobtainable. In some normal patients, midportion of the patellar tendon with the flat side of a the patellar tendon reflex is symmetrically absent. While the patient is pulling, the examiner again amount of eversion and dorsiflexion and strikes the pos strikes the patellar tendon (. To elicit the medial iner then strikes the thumb, which is pressing on the hamstring reflex, the patient is placed in the prone posi semitendinosus tendon, with the pointed end of the ham tion. This reflex may be remember that the spinal cord usually ends at the inferior elicited in the patient who is seated with the legs dangling margin of the L1 vertebra. Distal to this level, the nerve comfortably off the end or side of the examination table. Thus, for an upper motor Achilles tendon under tension, and then strikes the neuron picture to occur, a lesion must typically be situ Achilles about 3 cm above the calcaneus using the flat end ated at the L1 level or higher. Nerve Tension Tests In most patients, this action produces a visible twitch of the ankle into plantar flexion. As with other deep ten An important component of the lumbar spine examina don reflexes, a unilateral decrease in the magnitude of or tion is to determine whether evidence of nerve root com disappearance of the Achilles reflex suggests a lower pression exists. The most common cause of this considered probable when stretching the peripheral nerve picture is a herniated L5-S1 disk impinging the ipsilateral associated with the nerve root in question reproduces S1 nerve root. Bilateral hyperreflexia suggests the possi pain in the distribution of that nerve. Achilles tendon reflex, the use of reinforcement tech the femoral nerve runs down the anteromedial aspect of niques is often helpful. A convenient method for rein the thigh and is formed by the L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots. This technique brings out the Achilles tendon nerve tension test for the lumbar spine. The angle Performing the straight-leg raising test on the side oppo formed by the lower limb and the examination table at site that of the sciatica is called the crossed straight-leg the point of maximal elevation is noted, and the proce raising test. For example, if a patient complains of right dure is repeated with the opposite limb. In the presence of sci is extremely sensitive and specific for a herniated L5-S1 or atica, the angle of hip flexion is reduced and the patient L4-L5 lumbar disk. The crossed straight-leg raising test is reports shooting pain radiating down the posterior thigh less sensitive (. Sciatic pain the straight-leg raising test, pausing when the patient that is reproduced only with hip flexion beyond 70°, complains of reproduction of his or her typical sciatic therefore, suggests the possibility of sciatic nerve com pain. If the patient with lim which sciatic pain is induced, the examiner passively dor ited straight-leg raising reports tightness in the posterior siflexes the foot of the leg being raised (. This thigh rather than sciatica, hamstring tightness is the maneuver further deforms the sciatic nerve. Recent studies have confirmed that the straight the results of both the straight-leg raising test and the leg raise test is extremely sensitive (0. Reproduction of familiar radicular pain, as in the MacNab described another confirmatory test for sciatic straight-leg raising, Lasegue, and crossed straight-leg nerve tension known as the bowstring sign. To elicit the raising tests, is highly suggestive of sciatic nerve root ten bowstring sign, the examiner again begins by performing sion. Subsequent extension of the neck relaxes the spinal the straight-leg raising test to the point of reproduction cord and may thus relieve nerve tension (see. In the normal patient begins the slump test sitting on the side of the patient, this induces only a mild feeling of tightness in the examination table with the back straight, looking straight anterior thigh. The patient is then instructed to extend one knee, thus performing a straight-leg raise (. The process is It has already been noted that hyperextension of the then repeated with the opposite lower extremity. The single leg hyperextension test has been the examiner what is being felt and whether radicular described as a more specific test to detect the presence of pain is produced. Many normal individuals feel tightness spondylolysis and to suggest which side is involved in the Figure 9-27. The procedure is then repeated with the the patient is asked to stand in the straddle position with position of the lower limbs reversed. They are the Valsalva maneuver, the patient is instructed to bear helpful signals to alert the examiner to the possibility of down as if attempting to have a bowel movement (. If pain is present owing to pressure on the spinal cord or the nerve roots, this maneuver usually exacerbates the pain. The physical findings in common conditions of the lumbar spine are summarized in Table 9-2. Spondylolysis Lumbar tenderness at the level of involvement (variable) Decreased lumbar lordosis (variable) nonorganic pathology or organic symptoms that are Hamstring tightness with straight-leg raising test being enhanced by nonorganic factors. Pain exacerbated by hyperextension of the lumbar spine (passive extension, active extension, single leg extension test) (frequent) Signs of associated spondylolisthesis, if present Examination of Other Areas and Systems Spondylolisthesis Pain due to lumbar spine pathology frequently radiates to Signs of spondylolysis (see above) the pelvis, the posterior hip, or the thigh. In the case of Visible or palpable lumbar step-off (more severe cases) Sciatic notch tenderness (variable) lumbar disk disease, back pain may sometimes be com Motor or sensory deficit (variable) pletely absent, with the patient sensing pain only in the Lumbar Fracture sciatic notch and the posterior thigh areas. Patients with Tenderness at the level of injury this clinical picture often believe that they have a painful Localized swelling and hematoma or ecchymosis hip joint or a hamstring strain. Complete investigation of Lower motor neuron deficit owing to injury to the cauda equina or the potential lumbar spine pathology, therefore, often nerve roots (variable) Upper motor neuron deficit if lesion above the level of the cauda includes evaluation of the sacroiliac joint, the sacrum equina and the pelvis, the hip joint, and the thigh. The details of Lumbar Spondylosis these related examinations are described in Chapter 5, Decreased range of motion Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh. Pain exacerbated by motion (variable) Localized or diffuse tenderness (variable) Because the symptoms of claudication due to periph Low-Back Strain eral vascular disease are similar to those of pseudoclaudi Paraspinous muscle tenderness cation associated with spinal stenosis, an examination of Paraspinous muscle spasm (variable) the peripheral circulation of the lower extremities is Symptoms exacerbated by forward flexion List (variable) often a necessary adjunct to the lumbar spine examina Normal neurologic examination tion. Lumbar spine examination should include careful 1 loppenfeld S, ed: Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1976. Glossary 367 opposition A complex motion of the thumb in which the pelvic rotation Rotation of the pelvis in the coronal or trans thumb abducts and rotates (pronates) at the basilar joint, so verse planes during gait. Q angle, quadriceps angle the angle formed between a line pelvic flexion Rotation of the pelvis around a transverse axis in from the anterior superior iliac spine to the center of the which the superior pelvis rotates posteriorly while the infe patella and a line from the center of the patella to the center rior pelvis rotates anteriorly of the tibial tubercle when the patient is standing with the feet pelvic obliquity the situation in which the two sides of the in a neutral position. Index Note: Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations; page numbers followed by "t" refer to tables. A Adductor longus muscle, 165, 168, 170, Ankylosing spondylitis, 188, 301, 302, Abdomen, pathology of, back pain in, 360 171, 190 307, 339 Abdominal muscle reflexes, testing of, 325 Adductor magnus muscle, 168, 170, 190 Antalgic gait, 267-268, 339 325-326 Adductor pollicis muscle, 143 Antecubital fossa, 69 Abduction, definition of, 8, 9 Adductor tubercle, 168 Anterior, definition of, 1 of hip, 181 Adductors, humeral, testing of, 41-43, 43, 44 Anterior compartment muscles, 251 in extension, 181-182, 182 of fingers, 141 Anterior compartment syndrome, exercise in flexion, 182-183, 183 of hip. See also Osteoarthritis; shoulder, 20, 21 ligaments of, stability testing of, 290-292 Rheumatoid arthritis. See Rotator cuff, laxity of, abnormal, 14 windswept deformity of, 212 impingement syndrome of. See Collateral foot, and ankle, 247-296 extension of, 342, 342, 345-349, 347 ligament, ulnar. See Epicondyle(s), medial medial, 258, 262 gait evaluation and, 339-343, 340 Medial hamstring reflex, 354, 354-355 palpation of, 283 inspection of, 335-343 Medial nerve, 135 Leg length, discrepancy in, 168—173 lateral aspect of, assessment of, 338-339, Medial tibial plateau, 222, 222 apparent, 169 339 Median nerve, 69. Roos test, 6l, 63 Sartorius muscle, 161, 168, 170, 187, 191 motion(s) of, 8, 9 Rostral, definition of, 3 Scalene muscles, 312 in deficient forearm rotation, 80, 81 Rotation, external, 8 Scaphoid bone, 109, 133 sliding out of joint, complaints of, 51t internal, 8 fracture of, 125t voluntary dislocation of, 56-58, 60 of hip, assessment of, 183-185, 184, 185 tubercle of, 135 Shoulder and upper arm, 17-67 of lumbar spine, 343, 344 Scaphoid shift test, 151-152, 152 alignment of, 27-28, 28 of shoulder and upper arm, external, at Scaphoid shuck test, 152, 152 anatomy of, 17 side, 30-32, 32 Scapholunate capitate joint, 133 anterior aspect of, palpation of, 35-39 in 900 abduction, 31-32, 33 Scapholunate ligament, injury of, 125t conditions of, physical findings in, internal, at side, 32, 34 injury to, test of, 151-152, 152 62-63, 64t in 900 abduction, 32, 33 instability of, 157t lateral aspect of, palpation of, 39, 40 passive, of shoulder and upper arm, 49, 52 Scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint, 133 surface anatomy of, 22, 23 Rotation lag sign, external, 46, 48 Scapula, and snapping scapula syndrome, manipulation of, 40-63 Rotation simulation maneuver, of spinal 34, 40, 40 medial aspect of, palpation of, 40 nerves, 332, 332 inspection of, 22-25, 24 surface anatomy of, 27, 28 Rotational alignment, 3 lateral border of, 24, 25 motion in, 8, 9 Rotational malalignment, of lower limbs, 168 medial border of, 25, 25, 26 muscle testing of, 40-44 Rotator cuff, disorders of, in subscapulars palpation of, 39-40 normal, 27 injury, 47-49, 49 protraction of. See also Cervical spine; Lumbar spine; Superficialis tendon, laceration of, Tennis leg, 282-283 Thoracic spine. Splayfoot, 261 inspection of, 25-26, 26 326-328, 329 Splenitis capitis muscles, 299, 309 testing of, 41, 43 ulnar nerve dominant variation of, Splenitis cervicus muscles, 299 Supscapularis liltolf test, 41 328-330, 329-330 Spondylitic myelopathy, cervical, physical Sural nerve, 283, 290, 291 Tensor fascia lata, 163. See Elbow; Forearm; Hand; first metacarpal of, fractures of, 133 Torsion, definition of, 3 Shoulder and upper arm; Wrist. They have been carefully researched and are continually updated in order to be consistent with the most current evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for the provision of musculoskeletal management services from national and international medical societies and evidence-based medicine research centers. In addition, the criteria are supplemented by information published in peer reviewed literature. Health Plan medical policy supersedes the eviCore criteria when there is conflict with the eviCore criteria and the health plan medical policy. If you are unsure of whether or not a specific health plan has made modifications to these basic criteria in their medical policy for musculoskeletal management services, please contact the plan or access the plan’s website for additional information. For that reason, we have peer reviewers available to assist you should you have specific questions about a procedure.
Behavioral and the scope allergy medicine chlor trimeton best order clarinex, quality allergy shots on nhs order 5mg clarinex visa, and effectiveness of the wide social science research on physical activity is a rela range of policies and programs described in this tively recent endeavor allergy index denver order 5mg clarinex amex, and many questions remain to allergy news purchase generic clarinex canada section have the potential to foster more physically be answered about not only increasing but also sus active lifestyles in the U. Several factors seem to be key could be targeted to meet the needs of population influences on physical activity levels for both adults subgroups and could be designed to use effective and young people. Public health goals for physical activity to be active (self-efficacy); enjoying physical activity; and fitness are more likely to be achieved if policies receiving support from family, friends, or peers; and and programs are guided by approaches known to be perceiving that the benefits of physical activity out effective and tailored to meet the needs of all mem weigh its barriers or costs appear to be central deter bers of the community. Policies and programs should mining factors influencing activity levels across the be periodically evaluated to learn how they can be life span. For adults, some interventions in communities, the discussion of existing barriers and resources in health care settings, in worksites, and at home makes it clear that attention should be given to have resulted in small increases in physical activity, addressing not only the challenges of individual which if widely applied could create significant pub behavior change but also the environmental barriers lic health benefits. Among young people, school that inhibit a populationwide transition from a sed based programs are the most widely available resource entary to an active lifestyle. Expenditure of resources for promoting physical activity and have the poten for bike paths, parks, programs, and law enforce tial for reaching large numbers of children and ado ment to make playgrounds and streets safer will lescents. Research indicates that children’s levels of encourage physical activity in daily living and should physical activity in physical education class are greater thus be viewed as contributing to the health of all when physical education teachers are specially trained Americans. At the same time, evaluations of such in methods to increase the time their students spend changes can occur and more research accordingly engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Effective ap disciplines need to work together to engage commu proaches for weight gain prevention are few, espe nities, schools, and worksites in creating opportuni cially in light of the recently observed trend of ties and removing barriers to physical activity. Interven though recommendations given by health care pro tions that simultaneously influence individuals, viders can increase physical activity among adults, a community organizations, and government policies similar effect of counseling for children and adoles should lead to greater and longer-lasting changes. It is unclear what approaches can help people recover from relapses into inactivity—whether from illness, the weather, de Chapter Summary mands at work or at home, or other reasons—and sustain the habit of regular physical activity over time. This chapter has reviewed approaches taken by re Questions also remain about how to address barriers searchers to understand and encourage physical ac to physical activity and how to more effectively use tivity among adults, children, and adolescents living 248 Understanding and Promoting Physical Activity resources in communities, schools, and worksites to Physical Activity Interventions increase physical activity. Develop and evaluate the effectiveness of inter ising approaches have begun to address some of these ventions that include policy and environmental questions and provide direction for future research supports. Consistent influences on physical activity pat and boys, the elderly, the disabled, the over terns among adults and young people include weight, low-income groups, and persons at life confidence in one’s ability to engage in regular transitions, such as adolescence, early adulthood, physical activity. Develop and evaluate the effectiveness of inter activity, and lack of perceived barriers to being ventions to promote physical activity in combi physically active. For adults, some interventions have been suc the population and can be sustained over time. Understanding attitudes and predict Determinants of Physical Activity ing social behavior. Health promotion and osteoporosis intermittently active, routinely active at work, prevention among postmenopausal women. Baltimore: Williams activity at various developmental and life transi and Wilkins, 1994. Parental and peer influences on or city to another, from work to retirement, and leisure-time physical activity in young adolescents. Evaluate the interactive effects of psychosocial, cultural, environmental, and public policy influ ences on physical activity. A center-based program for lar disease through community-based risk reduction: exercise change among Black-American families. Health Education Monographs tion projections of the United States by age, sex, race, and 1974;2:324–373. Health Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Psychology 1987:6:159–172. Analysis of children’s physical activ in black schoolchildren: the Know Your Body evalu ity and its association with adult encouragement and ation project. Cardiovascular risk factor pre health intervention model for worksite health promo vention in black schoolchildren: two-year results of tion: impact on exercise and physical fitness in a health the Know Your Body program. A controlled trial of physician counseling to pro Booth M, Bauman A, Oldenburg B, Owen N, Magnus P. Preventive Medi Effects of a national mass-media campaign on physical cine (in press). Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition, and Health of stages of change in physical activity. Parental influence on exercise movement following mail-delivered, self-in children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity par structional exercise packets. American Journal of Health changes in cardiovascular risk factors and projected Promotion 1990;4:361–366. Factors associated with male workers’ engagement in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1996;45 ter for the Study of Aging, 1992:226–231. Health locus of control pre Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease dicts free-living, but not supervised, physical activity: Control, 1988. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1995;18: cal activity in older individuals: an application of the 479–497. Acta Medica Scandinavica Supplementum on the health of primary school students in South 1986;711:93–112. Factors influencing physical ment of the effects of two physical activity programmes activity in average-weight and overweight young on coronary heart disease risk factors in primary school women. Predicting physical activity change in Attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs as predictors of exer men and women in two New England communi cise intent and behavior in schoolchildren. Benefits and recommen vascular disease risk behavior among third-grade dations for physical activity programs for all Ameri students. Factors associated with the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart regular aerobic exercise in an elderly population. Preven Two-year results of a randomized controlled trial of a tion in Human Services 1991;10:123–146. Ten-year National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Insti outcomes of behavioral family-based treatment for child tute, July 1995. Gender and developmental differences in Pediatric Clinics of North America 1985;32:363–379. Commu behavioral and motivational dimensions to identify nity-based exercise and weight control: diabetes risk and characterize the stages in the process of adherence reduction and glycemic control in Zuni Indians. Work-site intentions to exercise of young students from grades 7 physical fitness programs: comparing the impact of to 9. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport different program designs on cardiovascular risks. Public participation in medical screening physical fitness and health-age appraisal upon exercise programs: a sociopsychological study. Predictors of physical activity intentions and perceived behavioral control upon exercising behav behaviour for rural homemakers. Canadian Journal of ior: an application of Ajzen’s theory of planned behav Public Health 1994;85:132–135. Perspec home-based exercise training on functional capacity in tives in Practice 1990;90:1260. American Journal of Cardiol Hovell M, Sallis J, Hofstetter R, Barrington E, Hackley M, ogy 1986;57:446–449. Journal of Community hood sporting activities: their implications for heart Health 1991;16:23–36. Education and life-style adoption of exercise behavior among sedentary older determinants of health and disease. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Pub Fitness Through Churches project: description of a lishers, 1990:187–215. Strategies exercise promotion: long-term outcomes of the Min for increasing early adherence to and long-term main nesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 tenance of home-based exercise training in healthy Study. Journal of Health Education 1995;26 system for assessing physical activity in children and (Supplement):S36–S44. Journal of the American Medical Association environment on physical activity in preschoolers.
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The term psychosomatic symptoms can best be understood as multiple somatic symptoms not associated with or indicative of any serious disease process allergy treatment local honey clarinex 5mg low price. There have been a few studies of maintenance of allergy testing qld brisbane order genuine clarinex on line, or recovery from allergy symptoms of wasp stings generic clarinex 5 mg fast delivery, pelvic pain in relation to allergy medicine babies cheap clarinex psychological factors of importance in pain. Those that described pelvic pain as medically unexplained or psychosomatic, due to the lack of physical findings, have been discarded, because such a distinction is inconsistent with known pain mechanisms . Understanding the psychological components of pain Psychological processes of emotions, thought and behaviour involve networks rather than distinct centres, and their interaction with pain processing is complex, producing inhibition and facilitation of signal processing, appraisal, and response. Models that integrate the psychological factors consistently found to be relevant in the maintenance of persistent pelvic and urogenital pain with current neurobiological understanding of pain are few but the quality is high (see 3. Negative investigative findings do not necessarily resolve women’s anxieties about the cause of pain [92, 93] and anxiety often focuses on what might be ‘wrong’ . Until measures are available that are adequately standardised in patients with pain, anxiety and distress may be best assessed by questions about concerns about the cause of pain, the hope that diagnosis will validate pain, the struggle with unpredictability, and the implications of pain for everyday life [95, 96]. These structural changes may be responsible for significant early life and adverse life events which are associated with chronic pain syndromes . The patient should be asked about adverse life events that may produce these biological responses and affect a patient’s general psychological well-being [29, 30, 98]. In the convergence-projection theory, as an example, afferent fibres from the viscera and the somatic site of referred pain converge onto the same second order projection neurons. The higher centres receiving messages from these projection neurons are unable to separate the two possible sites from the origin of the nociceptive signal [66, 70, 99]. In patients that have passed a renal stone, somatic muscle hyperalgesia is frequently present, even a year after expulsion of the stone. Referred pain with hyperalgesia is thought to be due to central sensitisation of the converging viscero-somatic neurons. Central mechanisms are of great importance in the pathogenesis of this muscle hyperalgesia. The muscles involved may be a part of the spinal, abdominal or pelvic complex of muscles. It is not unknown for adjacent muscles of the lower limbs and the thorax to become involved. Pain may be localised to the trigger points but it is more often associated with classical referral patterns. As well as trigger points, inflammation of the attachments to the bones (enthesitis) and of the bursa (bursitis) may be found . As a result, negative sexual encounters may also have a precipitating effect . Viscero-visceral hyperalgesia is thought to be due to two or more organs with converging sensory projections and central sensitisation. In the literature, population-based prevalence of prostatitis symptoms ranges from 1 to 14. There is a female predominance of about 10:1 [111, 115-117] but possibly no difference in race or ethnicity [101, 118, 119]. Some studies also report ejaculatory dysfunction, mainly premature ejaculation [128, 129, 137, 138]. Only a few studies have investigated sexual problems within clinical populations . Rectal pain treated with pelvic floor muscle therapy is only relieved when patients learn to relax their pelvic floor muscles [147, 148]. This finding was true regardless of evidence of inflammation (prostatitis or cystitis) . Dysfunction of the pelvic floor directly affects function of the pelvic viscera and vice versa. The muscle itself ends up with a diminished length, leading to restrictions even when it is in a relaxed state. The underlying causes, including the mechanisms are described here for the different clinical pain syndromes. As a common feature of chronic pain syndromes, no single aetiological explanation has been found. One explanation  is that the condition probably occurs in susceptible men exposed to one or more initiating factors, which may be single, repetitive or continuous. These factors may then lead to a peripheral self-perpetuating immunological, inflammatory state and/or neurogenic injury, creating acute and then chronic pain. Based on the peripheral and the central nervous system, sensitisation involving neuroplasticity may lead to a centralised neuropathic pain state . The ilioinguinal, genitofemoral and the pudendal nerves innervate the scrotum . The first one is the post-vasectomy scrotal pain syndrome which occurs following vasectomy. The mechanisms are poorly understood and it is for that reason considered a special form of scrotal pain syndrome. Incidence of post-vasectomy pain is 2-20% among all men who have undergone a vasectomy . In a large cohort study of 625 men, the likelihood of scrotal pain after six months was 14. The risk of post-vasectomy pain was significantly lower in the no-scalpel vasectomy group (11. It is seen as a complication of hernia repair, but in trials it is seldom reported or it is put under the term chronic pain (not specified). In studies that have explicitly mentioned scrotal pain, there was a difference in incidence between laparoscopic and open hernia repair. In almost all studies, the frequency of scrotal pain was significantly higher in the laparoscopic than in the open group [181, 185]. In one particular study, there was no difference at one year but after five years, the open group had far fewer patients with scrotal pain . This means that the specific testing with potassium has been used to support the theory of epithelial leakage [187, 188]. Another possible mechanism is neuropathic hypersensitivity following urinary tract infection . In a small group of patients with urethral pain, it has been found that grand multi-parity and delivery without episiotomy were more often seen in patients with urethral syndrome, using univariate analysis . When the pain persists for more than six months, it can be diagnosed as vulvar pain syndrome previously known as “vulvodynia” or “chronic vaginal pain” with no known cause. There are two main sub-types of vulvar pain syndrome: generalised, where the pain occurs in different areas of the vulva at different times; and focal, where the pain is at the entrance of the vagina. In generalised vulvar pain syndrome, the pain may be constant or occur occasionally, but touch or pressure does not initiate it, although it may make the pain worse. In focal vulvar pain syndrome, the pain is described as a burning sensation that comes on only after touch or pressure, such as during intercourse. The possible causes of vulvar pain syndrome are many and include: • history of sexual abuse; • history of chronic antibiotic use; • hypersensitivity to yeast infections, allergies to chemicals or other substances; • abnormal inflammatory response (genetic and non-genetic) to infection and trauma; • nerve or muscle injury or irritation; • hormonal changes. Neoplastic disease, infection and trauma, surgical incisions and post-operative scarring may result in nerve injury . Pudendal neuralgia is the most often mentioned form of nerve damage in the literature. Anatomical variations may pre-dispose the patient to developing pudendal neuralgia over time or with repeated low-grade trauma (such as sitting for prolonged periods of time or cycling) [192, 193]. For example, as part of a piriformis syndrome: in some cases, the nerve may pass through the muscle and hence be trapped; or in other cases, muscle hypertrophy or spasm is implicated. Within Alcock’s canal (medial to the obturator internus muscle, within the fascia of the muscle), possibly accounting for 26% of cases. There is a wide age range, as one would expect with a condition that has so many potential causes. Essentially, the sooner the diagnosis is made, as with any compression nerve injury, the better the prognosis, and older patients may have a more protracted problem [194-196]. Some special situations can be listed: • In orthopaedic hip surgery, pressure from the positioning of the patient, where the perineum is placed hard against the brace, can result in pudendal nerve damage [197, 198].
Diabetes accounts for at least 10 percent of all had a lower prevalence of diabetes than their urban acute hospital days and in 1992 accounted for an counterparts (Cruz-Vidal et al allergy shots while breastfeeding buy generic clarinex canada. For accumulates around the waist allergy treatment mold buy clarinex amex, abdomen allergy treatment yorba linda ca generic clarinex 5 mg online, and upper example allergy shots not refrigerated purchase 5 mg clarinex, the Second National Health and Nutrition body and within the abdominal cavity (this is also Examination Survey and the Hispanic Health and called the android or central distribution pattern) Nutrition Examination Survey found that higher (Harris et al. This women aged 55–69 years who had high levels of study showed a more pronounced benefit from vig physical activity were found to be half as likely to orous sports than from stair climbing or walking. Male college alumni Leisure-time physical activity Self-reported physician (1991) (walking, stair climbing, and diagnosed diabetes sports) Manson et al. Female nurses Single questions regarding number Self-reported diagnosed (1991) of times per week of vigorous diabetes, confirmed by activity classic symptoms plus fasting plasma glucose 140 mg/dl; two elevated plasma glucose levels on two different occasions; hypoglycemic medication use Manson et al. Male physicians Single questions regarding number Self-reported physician (1992) of times per week of vigorous diagnosed diabetes activity 126 the Effects of Physical Activity on Health and Disease (Manson et al. Although the incidence of It has been recommended that an appropriate diabetes was self-reported in these cohorts, concerns exercise program may be added to diet or drug about accuracy are somewhat mitigated by the fact therapy to improve blood glucose control and re that these were studies of health professionals and duce certain cardiovascular risk factors among per college-educated persons. In these three cohort stud sons with diabetes (American Diabetes Association ies, two found an inverse dose-response gradient of 1990). However, excessive activity was included as part of an intervention physical activity can sometimes cause persons with strategy to prevent diabetes among persons with diabetes (particularly those who take insulin for impaired glucose tolerance (Eriksson and Lindgarde blood glucose control) to experience detrimental 1991). At the end of 5 years of follow-up, twice as effects, such as worsening of hyperglycemia and keto many in the control group as in the intervention sis from poorly controlled diabetes, hypoglycemia group had developed diabetes. The lack of random (insulin-reaction) either during vigorous physical assignment of participants, however, limits the activity or—more commonly—several hours after generalizability of this finding. A study conducted in prolonged physical activity, complications from pro Daqing, China, also included physical activity as an liferative retinopathy. After myocardial infarction and sudden death, particularly 6 years of follow-up, 8. Cross-sectional studies also show that, com Biologic Plausibility pared with their sedentary counterparts, endurance Numerous reviews of the short and long-term athletes and exercise-trained animals have greater effects of physical activity on carbohydrate metabo insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by a lower plasma lism and glucose tolerance describe the physiologi insulin concentration at a similar plasma glucose concentration, and increased I21I-insulin binding to cal basis for a relationship (Bjorntorp and Krotkiewski 1985; Koivisto, Yki-Jarvinen, DeFronzo 1986; white blood cells and adipocytes (Koivisto et al. Insulin sensitivity and rate of glucose dis Wallberg-Henriksson 1992; Leon 1992; Richter, posal are related to cardiorespiratory fitness even in Ruderman, Schneider 1981; Harris et al. Resistance or During a single prolonged session of physical activ strength-training exercise has also been reported to ity, contracting skeletal muscle appears to have a have beneficial effects on glucose-insulin dynamics synergistic effect with insulin in enhancing glucose in some, but not all, studies involving persons who uptake into the cells. This effect appears to be related do not have diabetes (Goldberg 1989; Kokkinos et to both increased blood flow in the muscle and al. Much of the effect of physical activity enhanced glucose transport into the muscle cell. However, exercise training may glycogen levels in the muscle are being replenished. Lindgarde, Malmquist, Balke 1983; Krotkiewski Lastly, physical activity may prevent or delay the 1983; Trovati et al. These studies suggest that cally intra-abdominal fat, a known risk factor for physical activity is more likely to improve abnormal insulin resistance. As discussed later in this chapter, glucose tolerance when the abnormality is primarily physical activity is inversely associated with obesity caused by insulin resistance than when it is caused and intra-abdominal fat distribution, and recent by deficient amounts of circulating insulin (Holloszy studies have demonstrated that physical training can et al. Because joint injury is a strong risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis, it may not be the Osteoarthritis physical activity but rather the associated injuries Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is that cause osteoarthritis in these competitive ath characterized by both degeneration of cartilage and letes. Because its soccer players who had not suffered knee injuries prevalence increases with age, osteoarthritis is the had no greater prevalence of osteoarthritis than did leading cause of activity limitation among older sedentary controls. The etiology of osteoarthritis is unknown, cal activity of the amount and intensity recom and the risk factors and pathogenesis of osteoarthri mended for improving health thus does not appear this differ for each joint group. Whether an active lifestyle offers protection against the development of osteoarthritis is not Physical Activity in Persons with Arthritis known, but studies have examined the risk of devel Given the high prevalence of osteoarthritis among oping it in relation to specific athletic pursuits. Experimental work with animals and for long periods with the development of os shows that use of injured joints inhibits tissue repair teoarthritis seen on x-rays (Marti and Minder 1989; (Buckwalter 1995). On ies have indicated that running accelerates joint the other hand, both cross-sectional and cohort damage in animal models where osteoarthritis has studies have suggested that persons who engage in been experimentally induced (Armstrong et al. There is also currently no function among people with both osteoarthritis and evidence that persons with normal joints increase rheumatoid arthritis (Ettinger and Afable 1994; their risk of osteoarthritis by walking. Studies of competitive athletes suggest that 1994; Fisher and Pendergast 1994; Puett and Griffin some sports—specifically soccer, football, and 1994). For example, it has been shown that after weight lifting—are associated with developing os regular physical activity, persons with arthritis have teoarthritis of the joints of the lower extremity a significant reduction in joint swelling (Minor et al. In other studies of persons with osteoarthri Rall, McElroy, Keats 1964; Vincelette, Laurin, tis, increased levels of physical activity were associ Levesque 1972; Lindberg, Roos, Gardsell 1993). Furthermore, regular physical activ associated with the development of osteoarthritis. Because bone mass and strength pro hyaline cartilage has no blood vessels or nerves, gressively decline with advancing age, this disease mature cartilage cells (chondrocytes) receive nour primarily affects older persons (Cummings et al. Osteoporosis is more common among women through the cartilage matrix from joint fluid. Physi than among men, for at least three reasons: women cal activity enhances this process. In the laboratory, have lower peak bone mass than men, women lose putting pressure on cartilage deforms the tissue, bone mass at an accelerated rate after menopause creating pressure gradients that cause fluid to flow when estrogen levels decline, and women have a and alter osmotic pressures within the cartilage longer life span than men. Immobility of such vertebral fractures causes a bent-over or leads to decreased cartilage proteoglycan synthesis, hunchbacked posture that is generally associated increased water content, and decreased cartilage with chronic back pain and often with gastrointesti stiffness and thickness. Disuse may make the carti nal and abdominal problems related to a lowering of lage more vulnerable to injury, and prolonged disuse the rib cage. Hip fractures normal joints have confirmed that running does are associated with more deaths (a 15–20 percent affect the proteoglycan and water content of cartilage 1-year mortality rate), permanent disability, and and does not lead to degeneration of articular sur medical and institutional care costs than all other faces or to degenerative joint disease (Arokoski et al. By age 90, about one-third of ning has been shown to cause arthritis (Buckwalter women and about one-sixth of men will have sus 1995). In both men and women, the development of Conclusions osteoporosis may be related to three factors: a defi Physical activity is essential for maintaining the cient level of peak bone mass at physical maturity, health of joints and appears to be beneficial for failure to maintain this peak bone mass during the control of symptoms among people with osteoar third and fourth decades of life, and the bone loss thritis. Although there is no evidence that physical that begins during the fourth or fifth decade of life. Physical activity may play a substantial role in the development of bone mass during childhood and adolescence and in the maintenance of skeletal mass 130 the Effects of Physical Activity on Health and Disease as a young adult. In postmenopausal findings that athletic young adults have a higher women, greater gain in bone density accrues when density of bone mineral than sedentary young adults physical activity and estrogen replacement therapy (Kirchner, Lewis, O’Connor 1996; Grimston, Willows, occur simultaneously (Prince et al. The exercise-associated changes in bone mineral Beyond this hypothesized function in youth, density observed over time among both premeno physical activity plays a well-established role pausal and postmenopausal women are much less throughout the life span in maintaining the normal pronounced than those differences observed cross structure and functional strength of bone. Pro sectionally between active and sedentary persons longed bed rest or immobility causes rapid and (Drinkwater 1993). Cross-sectional studies demon marked reduction in bone mineral density (Krolner strate differences of 10–15 percent in bone mineral et al. Of particular public health interest is the degree to 1986; Michel, Bloch, Fries 1989; Recker et al. These differences may be due to differences in bone mineral density is correlated with muscle comparison groups, to follow-up duration insuffi strength (Sinaki et al. Longitudinal studies of determine definitively the longitudinal effects of postmenopausal women have attributed increases physical activity change or the differential effects in both cardiorespiratory fitness and bone mass to of resistance and endurance activity on bone mineral physical activity (Chow et al. There is some evidence that through physi cal activity, osteoporotic women can minimize bone Biologic Plausibility loss or facilitate some gain in bone mineral content Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly remod (Krolner et al. The intensity of the physical influence on bone density and architecture (Lanyon activity and the degree to which it stresses the bones 1996). Bone cells respond to mechanical loading by may be crucial factors in determining whether bone improving the balance between bone formation and mass is maintained. Thus it is likely that resistance bone resorption, which in turn builds greater bone exercise may have more pronounced effects than mass (Lanyon 1987, 1993). The higher the load, the endurance exercise, although this has not yet been greater the bone mass; conversely, when the skel unequivocally established. Glucose-6-phosphate, prostaglandins, and tive effect of physical activity on the bones of both nitric oxide play a role in mediating the mechanical premenopausal and postmenopausal women depends 131 Physical Activity and Health loading effect on bone (Pitsillides et al. Various exer maintaining skeletal integrity should be explored cises may help prevent falls by improving muscle more fully. Tinetti and colleagues (1994) showed milieu, nutritional intake, and medications, are in a significant decrease in falls in the elderly concomi creasingly being recognized as important determi tant with an improvement in balance and gait achieved nants of the bone’s response to mechanical loading through exercise. The relative contributions of each of demonstrated a protective effect against falls through these factors are currently under study and are not general exercise and exercises designed to improve yet clearly delineated.