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For example depression definition anatomy buy zyban american express, the To be able to bipolar depression medications buy genuine zyban line react on the audio activity of the participants flower could show how far the washing machine is by the flower is connected to depression in women zyban 150mg with amex a microphone bipolar depression 7 months discount zyban 150 mg fast delivery. It could show how long the cake directed microphones each connected to an individual has been in the oven. The petals would then simply start to flower the display can show which participants in the droop again if the cake was is in for too long. A similar effect can be achieved by between conference participators and the poster presenter placing two or three flowers on the table at different at a conference such as UbiComp 2003. In this paper we have presented LaughingLily an ambient display embodied by a flower. Although we have yet to LaughingLily Implementation conduct a comprehensive user study, we have shown how LaughingLily is an artificial Lily extended with a electro well such an ambient display in the form of a flower can mechanical system. To make the flower move a servo motor was controlled directly from the sensor board. They soon learnt that when someone is Information Visualization in Everyday Environments. The Interactive integrated into the physical space and became a peripheral Workspaces Project: Experiences with Ubiquitous display. We believe the quick integration of LaughingLily resulted mainly from having a physical object as a display itself. The Everywhere Displays Projector: A object can be moved around in space and be placed amidst Device to Create Ubiquitous Graphical Interfaces. Designing Calm LaughingLily and a real flower, first experiments showed Technology. In Proceedings of Beyond the meeting application presented in the previous International Workshop on Cooperative Buildings section many more applications are imaginable. Habitat is a range of connected furniture for background awareness between distant partners in just such a situation. The project particularly focuses on conveying the patterns of daily routines and biorhythms that underlie our well-being, in order to provide a sense of reassurance and a context for communication between people in relationships. When two people form a Research into the physiology of the brain is now starting to close bond, awareness of each other is essential to convey unravel some of the issues on why humans have such an feelings and needs to one another and ensures that the affinity to one another . But a corollary to technology the field of psychobiology provides us with a body of mediated relationships is that people can still feel experimental evidence on biorhythms and their impact on disconnected or not attuned with their partner, especially if our well-being . Old-fashioned clocks are affected by a number of external factors, most methods of keeping in-touch such as letter-writing are importantly people we are bonded to. The majority of Habitat also draws upon ideas from previous projects in modern communications technology such as telephones, ubiquitous computing that employ furniture and text messaging and e-mail, cause untimely interruptions, architecture as display devices, such as Ambient Displays can be in-contiguous or can require a significant amount of , Roomware , Peek-a-Drawer  and the effort to use while doing other tasks. Reciprocity is important for limbic regulation, since each station is a duplicate, awareness flows in both each object. The tag reader is polled regularly by the directions in a continual feedback loop. A range of daily cycle on the surface of the table, using an visualisations that describe remote activities have been appropriately mounted video projector. A forthcoming trial will be used to determine the removed, the displaying coffee table gradually fades away effectiveness and appeal of these different visualisations to that representation. Future versions of Habitat will concentrate on the capture of more complex routines and activities. We plan to use biomedical technologies in concert with the connected furniture platform, to monitor users? body temperatures, heart rates and other well known metrics for tracking biorhythms with additional accuracy. Humans have several bodily rhythms that affect how we feel in addition to circadian rhythms, such as ultradian (~90 minutes), infradian (many days) and circannual (~1 year). There are also several environmental factors that alter or reset body clocks (known as zeitgebers) that could be accounted for within visualisations. The aim of this research is to determine if we can successfully convey awareness of rhythms over a distance and if doing so can provide similar levels of reassurance and intimacy as physical proximity of partners in a Fig. Habitat takes into consideration several design guidelines the eventual goal would be to install suitably evolved in creating connectedness applications : iterations of the technology with many groups of people outside of the laboratory environment and assess their use. The system should behave like an appliance that is in a study prime candidates being people who endure always on and connected, to foster sense of continuity separation from family and partners for prolonged periods an open link between the users. Awareness: Biorhythms, sleep and to indicate presence of the remote partner over a duration dreaming. The conditions are the more complex user specified criteria that Keywords make up one action. Conditions can for example be light Context-aware computing, smart homes, handheld devices on in bedroom? or motion detected in bathroom. The conditions can be wrapped in a timer, so the seamless interaction between a house and its the user can specify a specific time frame for the condition, inhabitants that context-aware homes strive for is shown to. Examples of Tailored Functions In this project we approach the problem by suggesting a the first example function alerts the user when the next bus new application, which enables people to create their own will leave from the closest bus stop. The from the criteria that the fridge door opens between 7 and 9 user defines the sensor measures (criteria) that should be in the morning, while the light in the bathroom has been on taken into account when performing a specific action; the for more than 10 minutes. This particular user knows that action then depends on user specified criteria, making the he drinks a glass of milk in the morning after showering, applications more flexible and tailored, rather than having a which always takes more than ten minutes; therefore the programmer specify each application. We have developed a bus schedule is relevant at this point in his schedule, as prototype of the system that runs on a handheld device, but opposed to a fixed time. Finally, we discuss the implications, conclude and criteria as there are no lights on in the living room and the suggest future research. Most people lead irregular lives, resulting in exceptions that might initiate the action at the wrong time. This approach lets the user stay in control of the technology and thereby prevents the user from not using the application due to irrelevance. Testing how users interact with it A fair amount of research has focused on developing smart and see if they are able to create desirable applications, are homes; one example is the Aware Home at Georgia essential for further deployment. In our view, the goal of a smart home is to aware tour guide, Wireless Networks 3(5):421?33. It is our goal to empower the users by giving them Australasian information security workshop conference simple options for dynamic functions. Dey Computer Science Division Intel Research, Berkeley University of California at Berkeley Intel Corporation beckmann@cs. The Accord toolkit also capabilities are often difficult for end users to control. To ease interaction method for creating control rules and enhances programming in SiteView, we built tangible interactors, user understanding of the system by appropriately exposing drawing upon previous tangible programming work in internal state. The world-in-miniature ties our tangible interactors keyed to control rule conditions. Much automation can be leveraging spatial and visual correspondences between the achieved with simple sensing and actuation, and, indeed, control interface and the automated environment, and by commodity toolkits and protocols such as X10 exist for this enabling seamless visualization of the active environment purpose . As a proof of concept, we generally limited to hobbyists and those comfortable with implemented our interface design to provide control for a traditional programming techniques. Furthermore, these toolkits lack situated visualization Interactors are physical objects that logically correspond they do not show the user the future effects of her rules at to rule conditions, such as afternoon, and automated the time she is programming them. Tangible interfaces allow for collaborative and two-handed interaction, require less SiteView addresses these issues by lowering the learning dexterity than traditional input, and better preserve spatial curve for environment automation, while maintaining relationships between virtual objects and their real-world enough logical expressiveness to remain useful. Users create the environment, used as an interaction space for the user rules by manipulating tangible interactors representing to spatially specify automation actions. To enhance transparency, our interface offers scripting languages, enhancing intuition about explicit user feedback during programming. The environment display shows what the environment Our project draws inspiration from a broad base of will look like when a rule is activated. The rules display now shows the new rule, which handles light and temperature on rainy mornings, along with the original set of rules. The environment display reflects her new rule, and shows her office lit by her floor lamp on rainy mornings. The tangible interface appears to be intuitive and the environmental display and rules display are useful for Figure 1: the condition composer is at front; the large screen is the helping users create rules and view the effects of these environment display.
Biologically effective light during the day increases secretions of the melatonin hor mone during the night anxiety back pain order zyban master card. The consequences are obvious more restful nights as the body needs less time to depression symptoms crying cheap 150 mg zyban with mastercard get to depression slide definition generic zyban 150mg without prescription sleep and goes into deeper sleep bipolar mood disorder 1 buy generic zyban 150mg online. The natural progression of daylight plays a crucial role in synchronizing these processes. The more precisely our internal clock is in synchronism with this day/night cycle the more capable we are of working well during the day and sleeping well at night. This has a positive effect on our moods and well-being and therefore on our general behavior. In places where we lack adequate natural light it makes sense from the medical point of view to simulate daylight with the aid of arti? At workplaces in particular the addition of blue light with a wavelength around 460 nm can help because light with a high blue component has an activating effect on humans and boosts concentra tion. Jurgen Staedt, Medical Director at the Klinik fur Psychiatrie, Regular and coordinated. In general medi cine we are now using light more and more to achieve improvements in the general moods of our patients. To implement a lighting concept with biologically active light and high energy ef? This is because the geographical location of the building, its compass orientation, its window sizes and its shading by other buildings are all important criteria for successful planning with daylight-dependent lighting systems. Ceilings and walls with surfaces that are as bright as possible can be used as large secondary re? The luminances of the surfaces in a room must not exceed the permitted values however, otherwise there may be undesirable direct and re? A wide variety of different luminaires are available on the market that either provide indirect light off wall and ceiling surfaces or, as pendant versions, have large re? The lighting system can be switched on either with a standard light switch or by a motion sensor. Professional lighting design takes into account the size of the room, the ceiling height, the amount of daylight entering the room and obviously the main activities that will be carried out in the room. Lighting design based on biological aspects therefore makes special demands on the luminaires and the distribution of light in the room. A biologically effective lighting system provides ideal support for working people by offering arti? Employees barely notice these changes but do register the dynamics in the best possible way, namely indirectly. Biologically effective light is a constant visible but unobtrusive partner in all indoor activities. Dynamic lighting concepts for modern buildings call for perfectly matched technical components. All the devices must be able to commu nicate with one another without restriction and re act accordingly. A common interface for all the components within a system is of enormous im portance if the lighting control system, sensors, controllers, electronic control gear and lamps are to communicate effectively with one another. Its digital interface translates the dimming values precisely into the required mixing ratios. In addition, intelligent control of electrode preheating in dimming opera tions ensures that the lamps achieve their maxi mum life. Its 50 mm mini ceiling sensor for light and movement can be easily and unobtrusively integra ted in any room architecture. Action spectrum Melanopsin this is the spectral sensitivity for an effect triggered by light. There are action spec this is a photopigment that is responsible for the light sensitivity of the retinal ganglion trums for a wide variety of biological effects, for example for the occurrence of sunburn cells. The action spectrum for the with a maximum at around 464 nm in other words at the blue end of the spectrum. Opsin is the general term for a light-sensitive pigment (photo assumed that the other biological effects of light essentially follow this action spectrum. The pigment undergoes a change when it absorbs photons (quan tums of light), releasing a chemical signal chain at the end of which is a conversion to Circadian rhythm electrical signals in the nervous system. The pigment in the rods for light/dark vision is A biological cycle with a period of approximately 24 hours (from the Latin circa = rhodopsin; the pigments in the cones are iodopsin, porphyrosin and cyanopsin. Not only the essential functions of the entire organism but almost every indi Melatonin (suppression) vidual organ and even every individual cell have their own genetically prede? It promotes sleep in humans and activity visible or measurable circadian rhythms for the entire organism. Melatonin is produced and stored continuously in the pineal gland most important zeitgeber? for the circadian rhythm. It is the effect of light that synchro from serotonin, and is released only in the dark. If no melatonin is released the level of melatonin in the bloodstream falls as a result of decomposition processes. As melatonin is the most important measur Third photoreceptor able marker for the circadian phase of the internal clock the melatonin-suppressing ef these are sensory cells in the human eye that transmit information about the bright fect is generally equivalent to the circadian effect, i. Studies by Brainard have shown that these cells are sensitive to light at the blue end of the Retina spectrum (Brainard 2001). In addition to their the information-processing nerve cells, including ganglion cells. The light sensitivity of the retinal ganglion cells is approximately factor 100 Photoreceptors less than that of the cones responsible for color vision. These are light-sensitive sensory cells that convert quantums of light (photons) into the electrical signals for the nervous system. The photoreceptors in the retina of the human Ganglion cells eye are called cones, rods and melanopsin-carrying ganglion cells. The cones are re these are nerve cells that are responsible for processing and transmitting nerve impuls sponsible for color vision. They are at their greatest density in the center of the eye, es from receptor cells. With regard to the biological effect of light the retinal ganglion known as the macula lutea or yellow spot. This is the area of the retina that provides the cells are of particular importance. The rods are responsible for light/dark vision and have a cells were responsible only for processing information from the visual receptors the greater sensitivity than cones. Ganglion cells for example take the mix of signals from red and mainly found at the periphery of the? The melanopsin-carrying ganglion green-sensitive cones and produce a signal for yellow that is transmitted to the brain. It cells are not considered to be visual cells as they do not transmit images to the central is this ability to mix signals that enables us to perceive all the different colors. Around 2 nervous system but merely provide brightness information for controlling the internal to 3 % of these ganglion cells are themselves sensitive to blue light. Light is consequently the most important zeitgeber? for the internal clock; it synchronizes the internal clock with the external day. Graphic on right: Change in the spectrum with reduced spectral transmission at the Kline, C. A comparable effect with indirect lighting can weaken the biological im Mills, P. Licht 2002; Maastricht the pineal gland is also known as the pineal body, corpus pineale or epiphysis. We would be pleased to answer any questions you may have about planning and implementing daylight-dependent lighting systems. The program enables you to 81543 Munich Germany analyze and visualize lighting projects quickly and easily. The Cause Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents - 90 Delayed High School Start Times later than 8:30a. Currently, California has ages physicians to actively educate parents, over 3 million middle school and high school schools, teachers and community members students. The average school start time for about the importance of sleep for adolescent these students is 8:07am, according to the Cen mental and physical health based on their ters for Disease Control and Prevention. For example, the num cidents are the leading cause of death for teen ber of days and hours schools must be in ses agers in the United States and roughly 100,000 sion, what tests need to be administered, and traffic accidents each year are due to drowsi graduation requirements.
Because of its harmonic measure mood disorder hk generic 150 mg zyban otc, the Thirteen Moon/28-Day calendar coordi nated by the Harmonic Module is the new dispensation of time-reckoning for the human race mood disorder 29690 symptoms purchase genuine zyban on-line. Without such a basis in a lived mathematics of time correlated to definition depression de l'air purchase zyban on line the actual cycles of Earth depression symptoms tagalog order 150mg zyban mastercard, the noosphere could not be experienced nor fully realized. The successful completion of the bio sphere-noosphere transition, then, is the triumph of the synchronic order, the con scious elevation of Earth into the cosmic frequency of fourth-dimensional time. This is not only a matter of theory or prophecy; it is a matter of putting into practice, making a coherent action out of the application of the Law of Time as it completes the pressing urgency of the bio sphere-noosphere transition. The coherent action to bring us through this rite of passage is the Great Calendar Change of 2004. Ultimately, this book is presented to make us ready for this unprecedented time changing moment. May you, 0 reader, ponder deeply and then, if you so will, come join me in living on the other side of the wall of mechanized time. Seeing the Inevitable Event and, in fact, the entire human drama from the perspective of the biosphere, we are actually lifting the cruel trag edies of contemporary reality above conflict and into a state where genuine laws of peace and harmony may shed their light of wisdom, illuminating the human drama with a higher understanding. One thing is certain: Unless we rise above our own humanity and cultivate a non-anthropocentric view-the view represented by the noosphere-there will be no release from the calamity that is now engulfing us. For the multilayered task of bringing a new understanding to light, defining the technosphere, and then the Law of Time, we shall begin with the former: defining the technosphere in the context of the evolutionary continuum of biosphere technosphere-noosphere. Vernadsky (1863-1945) is so little known in the West, and that the word biosphere, as well as the laws and principles pertaining to it, are scarcely more known. To a large degree, this ignorance is due to the great cleav age in human relations experienced as the Cold War. The biosphere, which was profoundly studied and scientifically articulated by the master Russian scientist V. Vernadsky, is actually the precise word for what in the West is vaguely referred to as the environment. But even more than being a precise and scientific description for what is meant by the use of the word environment, biosphere defines a whole system model of life on Earth, and because of that, also presupposes a whole system meth odology and point of view. You cannot speak about the biosphere without entering into a world of discourse that is holistic or holonomic to the core. His key work, the Biosphere, exists in two very different translations; the one published by Synergetic Press in 1986 is easier to read, while the other, the "com plete annotated edition" published by the Far West Institute in 1998, is far more erudite, with a major bibliography and much supplementary information. Of these books, only Traces of Bygone Biospheres contains significant information about Vernadsky and his ideas. This scant list of available texts in English is hardly proportionate to the vast reality of the biosphere as a complex terrestrial dynamic in the throes of evolutionary change. The place and role of Vernadsky in Russian science is virtually equal to that of Einstein in Western science. A consideration of the achievement of each of these scientists also presents us with a dramatic contrast in perspectives, areas of interest, and consequent modes of analysis. And when these two mutually penetrating requirements, so distinctly revealed and intensified by the leap out into space, are satisfied, the new historical epoch will begin "in which mankind itself, and with mankind all branches of its activity. Engels, Dialecticsof Nature) And people, no longer burdened by the thirst for money, will remember something that many of our contemporaries have forgotten: the only important things in life are such intangible qualities as beauty and wisdom, laughter and love. Nothing remains for us, members of a society the ideals of which are in unison with elemental geological processes and the laws of nature, but to wish that people the world over would recognize this as soon as possible.! In fact, it is the Inevitable Event that prepares us for the new historical epoch. But first we must realize how we are organized by the biosphere in order that the technosphere may be transformed into the noosphere. By the time of the First World War, Vernadsky had already written important texts such as Fundamentals of Crystallog;raphy and De scriptive Mineralogy, and, along with Madame Curie, proposed an "international ra 20. In 1923 he published a "plea for the establishment of a biogeochemical laboratory. Demonstrating the synchronic ordering prin ciple of the noosphere, it is interesting that the same year that saw the publication of the Biosphere also witnessed the appearance of Jan Smuts noted book Holism and Evolution. Through most of the rest of his sometimes turbulent career (he often came under attack from hard-line bolsheviks), Vernadsky was to elaborate on the laws and principles of the biosphere, often expressed simply as problems in bio geochemistry. At the same time, his influence as a holistic thinker began to spread through the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Following the death of his wife in 1944, Vernadsky expressed the opinion that after the Second World War, American and Russian scientists should work more closely together. The critical collaboration between American and Russian scientists longed for by Vernadsky was soon to be buried in the ideological wasteland over which the super structure of the technosphere would be constructed, a fact that in itself hastened the Preliminary Definitions. Vernadsky did not live to witness the birth of the atomic era, which began only months after he died. But like Einstein in America, in 1940 Vernadsky-along with several other scientists, and mindful of the possible military applications-had prompted the Russian government to begin investigations into the possibility of deriving energy from nuclear fission. Yet it is most remarkable that by the time of his death, Vernadsky had almost single-handedly defined virtually every aspect of the laws and principles of the biosphere. This he always did with an eye to an imminent moment in the not-too-distant future when there would be a dramatic biogeochemical mutation or combustion, out of which the biosphere would somehow trigger the noosphere: Not at a crisis of nervousness do we stand now, not at a time for the vacillation of flabby souls; but at a great turning point in the history of scientific thought, at a crisis such as occurs but once in a thousand years, such as has not been witnessed for many generations. Standing at this point, with the vista of future achievements be fore us, we should be happy that it is our lot to live at this time and to participate in the creation of tomorrow. After all, as a geologist, Vernadsky was familiar with the long history of the Earth, and the impact of human technology on the biosphere was inescapably the most significant aspect of any study of the bio sphere to the present time. At its simplest level, the unity of the whole of living matter of the biosphere is the sum of its living organisms. These living organisms either directly or indirectly are continuously processing solar and cosmic radiation, trans forming it into various chemical cycles that establish the atmosphere, most notably through photosynthesis and the oxygen and carbon dioxide cycles. The important point, however, in any consideration of the biosphere is the principle of unity: the 22. Preliminary Definitions biosphere is a unitive complex of cycles summarized as a single continuously trans forming and slowly mutating biogeochemical process. In this single complex cyclical process, all of life-all of living matter-is a unity, a singular dynamic by which the biosphere can be considered as a living whole. From the plankton of the oceans to the trees in the forest and the human peering from his cave at the rising sun-all of this is a single unity. It is the interaction of the living matter with the inert matter that creates and establishes the attributes and dynamics of the biosphere as a whole, all of which are now in a heightened state of acceleration and transformation, for as Vernadsky put it in the conclusion to the Biosphere: "The thought of the human species is a new fact which is turning the structure of the biosphere upside down after myriads of centu ries. The first order of plants and bacteria constitute the mechanism for capturing the solar radiation and introducing the energy of the sun into the biosphere. The second order of biological life is a manifestation of the process of the transmission of energy through the vegetable world; that is, at a primary and fundamental level, animal life is dependent upon plant life for its existence. The evolutionary mechanisms of life include the principle of the biomass constant and the biogenic migration of atoms. Both of these mechanisms refer to and define the continuity and invariance of life on Earth. That is, the quantity of living matter has remained roughly un changed since the origin of life on Earth-the biomass constant. Furthermore, the amount of oxygen in the biosphere is equal to the amount of biomass. It is the pres sure of the different species on each other with the resultant interactions and changes that checks the infinite propagation of anyone species at the expense of the rest, and causes the mutation and evolution of the different life forms. It is through the inter mediate structure of the technosphere that the human is wreaking the greatest havoc on these principles that are intended to maintain the biosphere as a stable dynamic, Preliminary Definitions. The different stages of the mutation of life account for the biogenic migration of atoms: "The evolution of different forms of life throughout geological time increases the biogenic migration of elements in the biosphere. The first states: "The biogenic migration of chemical elements in the biosphere tends towards a maximum of manifestation"; this refers to the presence of life everywhere on Earth, as well as the principle of the pressure of living matter upon itself. The second biogeochemi cal principle states: "The evolution of species, in tending towards the creation of new forms of life, always move in the direction of increasing biogenic migration of the atoms in the biosphere. A newly evolved species will survive in the biosphere only if it is sufficiently able and sufficiently active in furthering the migration of atoms.
Poor treatment by doctors (Smith Coggins anxiety attacks symptoms treatment buy zyban without a prescription, Rosekind depression symptoms treatment purchase zyban, Hurd depression definition macroeconomics generic zyban 150mg online, & Buccino mood disorder vs psychotic disorder order zyban 150mg amex, 1994) and a variety of industrial accidents have also been traced in part to the effects of sleep deprivation Source: Adapted from Ross, J. It is no surprise that we sleep more when we are sick, because sleep works to fight infection. Sleep deprivation suppresses immune responses that fight off infection, and can lead to obesity, memory impairment, and hypertension (Ferrie et al. Additionally, during slow wave sleep the pituitary gland releases a surge of growth hormone. No nighttime surge is noted when the individual is awake, only when asleep (Dijk & Lazar, 2012). Memory Consolidation: Lastly, sleep is linked to the formation of memories and learning. Sleep has been implicated in the encoding process as well as the consolidation of memory (Walker, 2012). Sleep deprivation on memory formation is especially pronounced for emotional material. We tend to stay up late to enjoy activities in the evening, but then are forced to get up early to go to work or school. The situation is particularly bad for college students, who are likely to combine a heavy academic schedule, an active social life, and work. Getting enough sleep is a luxury that many of us seem to be unable or unwilling to afford, and yet sleeping is one of the most important things we can do for ourselves. Continued over time, a nightly deficit of even only 1 or 2 hours can have a substantial impact on mood and performance. The content of our dreams generally relates to our everyday experiences and concerns, and frequently our fears and failures (Cartwright, Agargun, Kirkby, & Friedman, 2006; Domhoff, Meyer-Gomes, & Schredl, 2005). Just like with sleep, there is no consensus on the funtions of dreams, and consequently, we will focus on the three most prominent theories. The Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud (1913/1988) analyzed the dreams of his patients to help him understand their unconscious needs and desires, and psychotherapists still make use of this technique today. He differentiated between the manifest content of the dream or its literal actions, and its latent content or the hidden psychological meaning of the dream. Freud believed that the real meaning of dreams is often suppressed by the unconscious mind in order to protect the individual from thoughts and feelings that are hard to cope with. By uncovering the real meaning of dreams through psychoanalysis, Freud believed that people could better understand their problems and resolve the issues that create difficulties in their lives. Information Processing: Although Freud and others have focused on the meaning of dreams, other theories about the causes of dreams are less concerned with their content. One possibility is that we dream primarily to help with consolidation, or the moving of information into long-term memory (Alvarenga et al. Payne and Nadel (2004) argued that the content of dreams is the result of consolidation when we dream about the things that are being moved into long-term memory. Thus, dreaming may be an important part of the learning that we do while sleeping (Hobson, Pace-Schott, and Stickgold, 2000). As a result, the cortex strings the messages together into the coherent stories we experience as dreams. Although researchers are still trying to determine the exact causes of dreaming, one thing remains clear, and that is we need to dream. If you happen to be home alone one night, try this exercise: At nightfall, leave the lights and any other powered equipment off. Consider how each of the theories of dreaming discussed would explain your dreams. Chapter Summary All human behavior, thoughts, and feelings are produced by the actions of our brains, nerves, muscles, and glands. Neurons are composed of a soma that contains the nucleus of the cell; a dendrite that collects information from other cells and sends the information to the soma; and a long-segmented fiber, known as the axon, which transmits information away from the cell body toward other neurons and to the muscles and glands. More than 100 chemical substances produced in the body have been identified as neurotransmitters, and these substances have a wide and profound effect on emotion, cognition, and behavior. Drugs that we may ingest can be agonists that mimic neurotramsmitters, or they may be antagonists that block the operations of neurotransmitters. It controls the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and reflexes. The cerebellum, behind the brain stem, is primarily responsible for the coordination of voluntary movement. Above the brain stem are other older parts of the brain involved in the processing of behavior and emotions, including the thalamus and the limbic system. The cerebral cortex contains about 20 billion nerve cells and 300 trillion synaptic connections, and it is supported by billions more glial cells that surround and link to the neurons. The cerebral cortex is divided into two cerebral hemispheres, and each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, each separated by folds known as fissures. The frontal lobe is primarily responsible for thinking, planning, memory, and judgment. The parietal lobe is responsible for processing information about touch and locating objects in space. The occipital lobe processes visual information, and the temporal lobe is responsible for hearing and language. The cerebral cortex also includes the motor cortex, the somatosensory cortex, the visual cortex, the auditory cortex, and the association areas. The brain can develop new neurons, a process known as neurogenesis, as well as new routes for neural communications known as neuroplasticity. Sensory or afferent neurons carry information from the sensory receptors, whereas motor or efferent neurons transmit information to the muscles and glands. The male sex hormone testosterone and the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone play important roles in behavior and contribute to sex differences. Sleep has a vital restorative function, and a prolonged lack of sleep results in increased anxiety, diminished performance, and if severe and extended, even death. Sleep deprivation suppresses immune responses that fight off infection, and can lead to obesity, hypertension, and memory impairment. Freud believed that the primary function of dreams was wish fulfillment, and he differentiated between the manifest and latent content of dreams. Other theories of dreaming propose that we dream primarily to help with memory consolidation or the moving of information into long-term memory. When hurt will not heal: Exploring the capacity to relive social and physical pain. The regulation of human sleep and wakefulness: Sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythmicity. Dreams as the expression of conceptions and concerns: A comparison of German and American college students. Electric excitability of the cerebrum (Uber die Elektrische erregbarkeit des Grosshirns). Observations on visual perception after disconnection of the cerebral hemispheres in man. Dream consciousness: Our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep offers insight into abnormalities in the waking brain. The brain as a dream state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. A note on Corballis (1997) and the genetics and evolution of handedness: Developing a unified distributional model from the sex-chromosomes gene hypothesis. Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 46(6), 769?780. Right hand, left hand: the origins of asymmetry in brains, bodies, atoms, and cultures. Self-stimulation of the brain: Its use to study local effects of hunger, sex, and drugs. Distinct and Overlapping Functional Zones in the Cerebellum Defined by Resting State Functional Connectivity.
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